All of the B1 topics for AQA GCSE Biology

My revision notes for GCSE Biology,

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11.
1 How do
human bodi
es
respond
to
changes
insi
de
them
and
to
t
heir
envi
ronment
?
The nervous system
The
nervous
syst
em
enabl
es
humans
to
react
t
o t
hei
r
sur
roundi
ngs
and
coor
dinat
e t
hei
r
behavi
our
.
- Receptors
detect
st
imul
i
w hi
ch
incl
ude l
ight
(
eyes)
,
sound
(ears)
,
changes
in
posi
ti
on/bal
an ce
(ear
s)
chemical
s (
tongue,
nose)
t
ouch
pressur
e pai
n and
t
emp erat
ure (
skin)
- The
infor
ma ti
on f
rom r
eceptor
s passes
along
neur
ones
in
the
nerves
to
the
brai
n.
- The
b r
ain
co ordi
nates
the
response.
Refl
ex act
ions
are
aut
omat
ic
and
rapi
d.
They
oft
en
invol
ve
sensor
y,
rel
ay
and
mot
or
neur
o nes.
The
centr
al
nervous
syst
em CNS
in
huma ns
consi
sts
of
the
brai
n and
spinal
cor
d.
When a
recept
or
is
sti
mu l
ated,
i
t
sends a
signal
al
ong
the
nerve
cell
s
neur
ones
to
the
br
ain.
The
brai
n t
hen coordi
n at
es t
he r
esponse.
Neur
ones
Neurones
ar e ner
v e cel
ls.
Th ey
carr
y i
nfor
ma t
ion
as t
iny
elect
ri
cal
signal
s.
There
ar
e three different types of neurones,
each
w i
th
a sl
i
g ht
ly
dif
fer
ent
funct
ion.
1.Sensory neurones carr
y si
gnal
s f
rom receptors
to t
he spi
nal
cord
and br
ain.
2.Relay neurones car
ry
me ssages
fr
om one
p art
of
t
h e
CNS t
o anot
her.
3.Motor neurones car
ry
signal
s f
rom t
he
CNS to ef
fect
ors.
A
typi
cal
neur
one i
n t
his
case,
a motor
neurone. I
t
ha s
ti
ny br
anches at
each
end and
a
l
ong
fi
bre
carr
ies
the
signal
s.

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Page 2

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Ref
lex
act
ions
What
happens:
1.R ecept
or
detect
s a
sti
mu l
us
change i
n t
he envi
ronment
2.S e nsor
y neur
one sends si
gnal
to
r
elay
n eur
one
3.Mo t
o r
neur
one sends
signal
to
ef
fect
o r
4.…read more

Page 3

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­ wat
e r
l
eaves t
he body vi
a t
he l
ung s
w hen
w e
breathe
out
an d vi
a t
he ski
n when we sweat
to
cool
us down, and
exce ss
water
is
l
o st
vi
a t
he ki
d neys i
n t
he uri
ne
- the
ion content of
the
bo dy
­ i
ons
are l
ost
via
the
skin
w hen
w e
sw eat
and
excess i
ons…read more

Page 4

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Page 5

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Very
rel
iabl
e
Wo men pr
o t
ected
all
t
he t
ime
Peri
ods more r
egular
May prevent
PMT
Prot
ect
aga i
nst
some diseases
e.g.
r
heumat
oid,
ar
thr
it
is.…read more

Page 6

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What
can
w e
do
to
keep
out
bodi
es
heal
thy?
A
heal
thy
diet
cont
ains
the
ri
ght
bal
ance
of
the
dif
fer
ent
f
oods
you
need
and
the
ri
ght
amount
of
ener
gy.
A
p er
son i
n
ma l
nou r
ished
if
t
h ei
r
diet
i
s not
balanced.…read more

Page 7

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Scur
vy
lack
of
vit
ami
n C
Cholesterol:
Chol
ester
ol
is
a subst
a nce
found
in
the
blood.
I
t
is
ma de
in
the
li
ver
(t
h e
amount
ma de
depends
on di
et
and
i
n her
it
ed f
actor
s)
and i
s needed
for
healt
hy cel
l
me mbranes.…read more

Page 8

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When new medi
cal
drugs
are
creat
ed,
t
hey
have
to
ext
ensi
vel
y t
est
ed
and
tr
ial
led
bef
ore
being
used.
1.Drugs
are
tested
in
a l
aborat
ory,
of
ten
on ani
mals,
t
o f
ind
o ut
i
f
they
are
eff
ecti
ve
and
non t
oxic.
2.…read more

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Class C tranquilisers, painkillers Up to two years in Up to 14 years in
prison or an unlimited prison or an unlimited
fine or both fine, or both
Drugs
change t
he chemi
cal
pr
ocess
in
people'
s
bodi
es s
o
that
t
hey
become dependent
or
addi
cted
to
them and
suf
fer
wi
thdr
aw al
sympt
oms wi
thout
them.
Her
oin
and c
o c
a i
ne
ar
e ver
y addi
cti
ve.…read more

Page 10

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Hypnosis:
Agai
n,
pat
ient
s r
epor
t
success,
but
i
ts
eff
ect
s ar
e not
sci
ent
if
ical
ly
pr
oven.
Alcohol
- Aff
ects
the
nervous
syst
e m by
slowi
ng down r
ea ct
ion
s
and hel
ps
peopl
e r
elax,
- Too much may
lead t
o l
ack
o f
sel
f
contr
ol,
unconsci
ous or
even
comma,
event
uall
y damaging
the
li
ver
and brai
n.
11.…read more

Comments

Katie

This was so useful, thanks so much :)

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