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C5 - Chemicals of the Natural Environment
Chemicals in the Atmosphere
The Earth's atmosphere is made up of many gases. Some of these gases are elements, e.g. oxygen
(O2), nitrogen (N2) and argon (Ar) ­ they contain only one type of atom.

Other gases are compounds, e.g. carbon dioxide (CO2)…

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are free to move again, meaning they'll carry an electric current. When an ionic compound is solid, the
ions aren't free to move, and so an electrical current can't pass through the substance.

Chemicals in the Lithosphere
The lithosphere is the Earth's rigid outer layer ­ the crust and part…

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Hydrogen needs just one extra electron to fill its outer shell. So, two hydrogen atoms shared their
outer electron so that they have a full shell, and a covalent bond is formed.

Carbon dioxide needs four more electrons to fill up its outer shell. Oxygen needs two. So two

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Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) = AgCl(s). A chloride gives a white precipitate of silver chloride

Ag+(aq) +Brl-(aq) = AgBr (s). A bromide gives a cream precipitate of silver bromide

Ag+(aq) + I-(aq) = AgI(s). A iodide gives a yellow precipitate of silver iodide

Metals from Minerals
Rocks are made of minerals.…

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Electrolysis is the decomposition of a substance using electricity. It needs a liquid to conduct the
electricity ­ called the electrolyte.

Electrolytes are usually free ions dissolved in water or molten ionic compounds. It's the free ions that
conduct the electricity and allow the whole thing to work. For…

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Metallic bonds mean metals have a high tensile strength ­ they are strong and hard to break. The
layers of atoms in a metal can slide over each other, making metals malleable ­ they can be
hammered or rolled into flat sheets.

Metallic bonds are very strong, so it takes…


Sasha Dean


Thanks- A very good, thorough revision booklet (papers!).

Hope i get an A*.

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