All about memory

Pretty much everything you need to know about memory. WMM, MSM, strengths, weaknesses, research, experiments. All in a word document!

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Memory - DURATION
Short Term Memory
Duration ­ Peterson and Peterson
Lab experiment ­ 24 ppts were given a nonsense trigram to be remembered
and also given a three ­ digit number. They were asked to count backwards
from the number until told to stop and recall the nonsense trigram. This was
repeated with different pauses : 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 or 18 seconds.
This showed ppts could remember about 90% of the nonsense trigram when
there was a three second interval, which dropped to about 20% after 9
seconds and about 2% when there was an 18 second interval. This shows STM
has a duration of less than 18 seconds is verbal rehearsal is prevented.
Evaluation: ecological validity ­ stimulus is artificial.
Internal validity ­ what were they really testing? The trigram may have been
confusing and forgetting may be due to displacement, not memory decay.
Long Term Memory
Shepard ­ lab experiment
He showed ppts 612 memorable pictures, one at a time. An hour later they
were shown some of these pictures within other set and they had to say if they
had seen that picture before. Almost perfect recognition was displayed. Four
months later they could recognise 50% of the pictures.
Bahrick et al ­ lab experiment
They asked people of various ages to put NAMES to FACES from their high
school year book and 48 years on, 70% were accurate.
The more meaningful information is, the longer we can remember it for.
Memory ­ CAPACITY
Short Term Memory

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Miller ­ Reviewed previous research and concluded the span of STM is 7+_
2(5-9). He also found that people can recall 5 words as well as they can recall 5
letters as we chunk things together and remember them more.
Jacobs ­ used the digit span technique to assess the capacity of STM. He found
the average span for digits was 9.3 and for letters were 7.3. This may be
because there are more letters to recall from than possible numbers.…read more

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Research supporting WMM
Baddeley and Hitch conducted a lab experiment. They demonstrated that performance was slower
when ppts were given a task involving the central executive and a second task involving BOTH
central executive and articulatory loop, than articulatory loop alone, or no extra task.
Baddeley et al ­ found that ppts found it harder to do two visual tasks than visual and verbal
together.
Evaluation on WMM
Strengths
Emphasises process more than the MSM and presents a more detailed understanding of STM.…read more

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The WMM is restricted to STM
Multi Store Model
Atkinson and Shiffrin, 1968.…read more

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