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Hostile aggression intention to harm another person who doesn't want to be
Prosocial protects society e.g. army
Sanctioned permitted but not normative e.g. women/pepperspray/hunting/police
Instrumental goalorientated ­ aggression used to get something/as a side effect of
trying to get something

Proactive = initiative Reactive =…

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GENDER DIFFERENCES ­ boys reproduced more imitative physical
aggression than girls, but did not differ in verbal aggression
Cooper and McKay ­ girls who played aggressive games increased in
aggression but boys didn't suggesting that sources of social learning influence
them differently


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Additionally increased arousal, sensory overload, focus on external events and
altered consciousness due to drugs can affect deindividuation

Zimbardo's Stanford Prison Study
12 guards vs 12 prisoners
Guards deindividuated with military uniforms and reflective sunglasses whilst
prisoners had loose smocks, ID numbers instead of names and were stripped

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INSUFFICIENT SUPPORT ­ Postmes and Spears metaanalysis of 60 studies
found insufficient support for the theory

Institutional Aggression
Aggression is affected by:
Dispositional factors which are imported
Situational factors which are deprivational to the prisoners

1) Importation Model ­ Irwin and Cressey
Aggression occurs due to the individual characteristic…

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5) Security

All of these factors increase stress on inmates and aggression reduces this stress and
may aid the acquisition of these resources.

Aggression can be seen as a way to control the social order imposed upon them
REAL LIFE APPLICATIONS ­ Blomberg found that prisoners have to obtain…

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Situation [human and physical environment in which the incident takes place]

2) Biological

Neural and hormonal

SEROTONIN a neurotransmitter which enables impulses within the brain to be transmitted
Lower levels found in more violent people
Lowering serotonin in laboratory settings increases their willingness to deliver electric

Mann when…

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Prefrontal cortex Phineas Gage's damaged prefrontal cortex increased his
aggression significantly.
Raine found that the prefrontal cortex which inhibits aggression is 14% less active in
murderers and 15% smaller in antisocial males.
Alcohol decreases prefrontal cortex activity so leaves limbic sites without cognitive


Dabs higher testosterone in…

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man. Testosterone went up 100 times more in the gun condition, and they put3
times more chilli in the water.

Environmental stimuli increase aggressiveness partially via increases in testosterone,
supporting Sapolsky's belief that high levels of testosterone do not lead to heightened
aggression but instead that aggressive behaviour elevates…

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[aggressive behaviour is sensitive to early social experiences but also to variations of
MAOA complex interaction]

Adoption studies nature or nurture??
Positive correlation between aggression in adopted child and biological parent
Positive correlation between aggression in adopted child and rearing family
HOWEVER very sensitive data, deterministic (stress…

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Males tend not to aggress towards females as it reduces reproduction chance
Bun and Duntley for evolution to explain aggression, adaptive and functional
benefits of aggression must outweigh possible costs


Buss crosscultural questionnaire + objective galvanic skin measures

More jealous if partner had sex or formed…


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