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Alkenes
Unsaturated hydrocarbons because can make more bonds with extra atoms in addition
reactions.
c
nH2n
Contain at least 1 double CC covalent bond meaning high electron density so they are
very reactive.

Addition Reactions
Electrophilic addition reactions

Double bond opens up, atoms added to C atoms.
Happens because double…

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Bromine Test for Unsaturates
Shake alkene with orange bromine water
solution quickly changes from orange to
colourless. Bromine added across
double bonds to form colourless
dibromoalkane (happens by electrophilic
addition)
Major and Minor products

Adding hydrogen halides to
unsymmetrical alkene gives us two possible products.









The amount of each one…

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Carbocation's with more alkyl groups are more stable because alkyl group feeds e toward +ve
charge. Can show alkyl group is donating e by drawing arrow on bond pointing to where e
donated.







More stable ones more likely to form than less stable so more product formed via more stable…

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Addition Polymers
Formed from alkenes and substituted alkenes (where 1 H atom swapped for another atom
or group, e.g. swapping 1 H in ethane for Cl atom you get chloroethene when polymerised
you get poly(chloroethene)). Long chain formed by several monomers joined.
Can be natural or synthetic.
Double bonds in…

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IUPAC Nomenclature
Once found monomer used to form addition polymer you know they form poly(X) where X is the
name of the monomer.
Polymer Properties ­
Alkene monomers unsaturated, once polymers they are saturated.
Main C chain of polyalkenes is usually nonpolar which means polyalkenes are very
unreactive.
The monomers…

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