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What are Alkanes?
One family of hydrocarbons is used as fuels, these are called alkanes.
Crude oil was formed from the bodies of dead sea animals and plants
that died millions of years ago. Their bodies were covered by sand and
this stopped oxygen from breaking down. Instead, they turned into crude
oil. ( ancient biomass)…read more

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Names of the Alkanes and Their
Molecular Formula
Number of carbon atoms Alkane name Molecular formula
1 Methane CH4
2 Ethane C2H6
3 Propane C3H8
4 Butane C4H10
5 Pentane C5H12
6 Hexane C6H14
7 Heptane C7H16
8 Octane C8H18…read more

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Unsaturated hydrocarbons have one or more double or triple bonds
between carbon atoms. Those with double bond are called alkenes.
Those with one double bond have the formula CnH2n. Alkenes also
contain ONE double bond.…read more

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Names of Alkenes and Their
Molecular Formula
Number of carbon atoms Name of Alkenes Molecular formula
2 Ethene C2H4
3 Propene C3H6
4 Butene C4H8
5 Pentene C5H10
6 Hexene C6H12
7 Heptene C7H14
8 Octene C8H16…read more

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Fractional Distillation
Crude oil is a mixture of different sized molecules called hydrocarbons that can
be separated using fractional distillation.
Fractional distillation is the name given to the process used to refine the crude oil.
The compounds in each fraction have similar boiling points. The refining is
carried out in a tall tower. The tower is hottest at the base and becomes coolest
towards the top. Each fraction can be collected from the part of the tower with the
correct boiling range.
Small hydrocarbons Large hydrocarbons
Low boiling point High boiling point
Not viscous ( Its runny) Viscous (Its thick)
Very flammable Not flammable
Very reactive molecules Not reactive molecules…read more

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