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The carbonyl group can be reduced by lithium tetrahydridoaluminate(III)(LiAlH4)
and sodium tetrahydridoborate (NaBH4)(III).
LiAlH4 must be aqueous and usually is dissolved in methanol
NaBH4 mus be anhydrous and is usually reacted with an ether
Aldehydes reduce to primary alcohols.
Ketones reduce to secondary alcohols.
(d) Additionelimination (condensation) reactions.
In these reactions the carbonyl undergoes nucleophilic attack but the adduct loses a
small molecule, usually water.
One of the most useful reagents is 2, 4dinitrophenylhydrazine reagent. This is a
solution of 2,4dinitrophenylhydrazine in a suitable solvent.…read more

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Positive result: A pale yellow precipitate with a strong antiseptic smell
(triiodomethane/ CHI3/ iodoform)
Positive for: Methyl groups: ethanol CH3CH2OH and all alcohols with the 2ol
structure CHOHCH3 and the aldehyde ethanal CH3CHO and all ketones with
the 2one structure RCOCH3 ('methyl ketones')…read more


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