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11.1Alcohols and Phenols




















a)
Forming alcohols from halogenoalkanes
When warming aqueous sodium hydroxide with a haloalkane the corresponding
alcohol is formed.
Nucleophilic substitution. By a bimolecular process
The position of halo group determines whether the alcohol produced is primary or
secondary.




Forming alcohols from carbonyl compounds

The carbonyl group may…

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b)
Reactions of alcohols with hydrogen halides

ROH + HX RX + H20
X= halide
The Lucas test is able to distinguish between primary, secondary and tertiary
alcohols based on the relative stabilities of the carbocations.
The alcohol is treated with an anhydrous zinc chloride catalyst in concentrated
hydrochloric acid.…

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Elimination reactions of alcohols

When ethanol is heated with an excess of concentrated sulphuric acid to 180 oC, ethene is
formed by elimination of a molecule of water.
C2H5OH >C2H4 + H2O
The same reaction can be achieved by passing ethanol vapour over aluminium oxide or
porous pot above 300…

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