Alcohols and Halogenoalkanes summary

Summary of reactions and properties

HideShow resource information
  • Created by: Niki :)
  • Created on: 06-05-12 21:52
Preview of Alcohols and Halogenoalkanes summary

First 156 words of the document:

The alcohols are another homologous series of compounds that have the general formula CnH2n+1OH.
easy way to work it out is the number of carbon atoms
bonded to the COH group. A primary alcohol has 0 or 1 carbon on the COH. The
secondary alcohol has 2 carbons and the tertiary alcohols have got 3 carbon atoms
bonded to the C-OH.
And now we come to tertiary alcohol; these will not be oxidised very easily so not very
much will happen.
Alcohols can be oxidised by using chemicals like acidified potassium dichromate in warm
conditions. The products vary depending on the type of alcohol.
A primary alcohol will oxidise to an aldehyde and given further oxidation it will become a
carboxylic acid.
A secondary alcohol can be oxidised to a ketone with the functional group CO.
Other reactions:

Other pages in this set

Page 2

Preview of page 2

Here's a taster:

Alcohols burn in a plentiful supply of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water vapour.
With sodium
Sodium sinks in ethanol (as it is more dense) and this results in the formation of hydrogen
gas and sodium ethoxide. Ethanol acts as an acid in this reaction.
Alcohols react phosphorus(V) chloride to produce a chloroalkane, hydrogen chloride (gas)
phosphorus oxychloride (POCl3). This is used as a test for the presence of the OH- group.
Alcohols are polar molecules and can form hydrogen bonds.…read more

Page 3

Preview of page 3

Here's a taster:

Nucleophilic Substitution
Halogenoalkanes contain a polar bond on the functional group, because the halogen is
electronegative so becomes - and the carbon is positive. This means it is susceptible to
nucleophillic attack by ions.
The strength of the C - Halogen bond also influences the rate of substitution. The C-F bond requires a
quite a bit (484 kJmol-1) of energy to break, however, the C-Br bond is easier to break so the rate of
reaction is faster.…read more


No comments have yet been made

Similar Chemistry resources:

See all Chemistry resources »See all resources »