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Nomenclature of Alcohols
nH n+1OH

e.g. Ethanol
longest carbon chain is 2 C atoms so ethane.
There's 1 ­OH suffix ­ol
Could be attached to 2 C atoms but they are equivalent so both labelled C atom 1 so no
need to put a No. So alcohol is…

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Ethanol Production
Hydrating Alkenes
Using steam in presence of acid catalyst:

General equation CnH2n + H2O CnH2n+1OH
Used industrially to produce ethanol. Ethen can be hydrated by steam at 300°C and pressure of
60atm. It needs solid phosphoric acid catalyst.

Equation for industrial hydration of ethane ­ CH2=CH
2(g) +…

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Yeast produces enzymes which converts glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide.
When solution reaches 15% ethanol, yeast dies. Fractional distillation used to inc. conc of
ethanol. Fermentation uses cheap equipment and renewable resources but the step
needed to purify the ethanol using this method takes extra time and money.


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3) When ethanol burned, carbon dioxide and water produced

These 3 equations show that overall the same No. moles of Carbon dioxide is used as given out.
However fossil fuels will need to be burned to power machinery to make fertilisers for crops and
machinery to harvest them. Refining and…

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Have 2 alkyl groups attached to carbonyl carbon atom.
Suffix for ketones is ­one. For ketones with 5 or more C, you need to say which C the functional
group is on.

Carboxylic Acids
Have a COOH group at end of carbon chain.

General formula = C

Suffix is…

Page 6

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It is tricky to control amount of heat and aldehyde is usually oxidised to form vinegar smelling
ethanoic acid.
To get just the aldehyde you need to get out of oxidising solution as soon as its formed. Do this by
gently heating excess alcohol with controlled amount of oxidising agent…

Page 7

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Testing for Aldehydes and Ketones

Distinguish using oxidising agents ­ aldehydes easily oxidised but ketones aren't. Fehling's solution

and benedict's solution both deep blue
Cu2+ complexes (alkaline solutions of copper (II) sulphate)
which reduce to brick red Cu 2O precipitate when warmed with aldehyde but stays
ketone. Silver…


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