Aggression summary

sorry for any spelling mistakes- these were my personal notes and spelling wasnt an issue for me!!!

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  • Created by: Jordannn
  • Created on: 29-01-13 14:23
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SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY: SUMMARY
Aggressive behaviour is either learned through either direct experience or by
observation.
DIRECT EXPERIENCE= skinner operant conditioning- REINFORCEMENT means
that behaviour is more likely to be repeated.
VICARIOUS EXPERIENCE= observational learning- copying a models
behaviour= IMITATION.
For behaviour to be imitated it has to be REWARDED.
LIKELYHOOD OF A PERSON BEHAVING AGGRESSIVELY= previous aggressive
behaviour, degree at which their aggressive behaviour was successful, current
likelihood of behaviour being rewarded or punished and other COGNITVE OR
ENVIRONMENTAL factors.
BANDURA argued aggression is imitated if= model is similar to them, model
has desirable characteristics, individual has low self esteem or highly
dependant on others and the child responds to direct reward.
BANDURA BOBO DOLL STUDY
AIM
Split 66 nursery children into 3 groups. All watched film of an adult kicking a
bobo doll, with aggressive comments.
Condition 1=aggressive model not rewarded or punished
Condition 2= aggressive model was rewarded.
Condition 3= aggressive model was punished.
Children then played with the doll and aggressive behaviour was recorded.
FOUND
CONDITION 1 AND 2= tendency for the child to show spontaneous, imitative
aggressive acts.
CONDITION 2= acted most aggressively.
CONDITION 3= acted least aggressively.
EVALUATION
SUPPORT= Lab experiment- replicable and controlled all extraneous variables,
Emphasised the influence of role models (same sex) and rewards in shaping
behaviour.
CRITISISM= Lack of ecological validity, ethnocentric, demand characteristics
and ethics.
Helps to explain why children might copy role models.
Showed societies attention on the power of the MEDIA.
DETERMINISTIC- does not allow for free will (we are capable of thinking for
ourselves and making logical decisions.)
Ignores BIOLOGICAL influences.
DEINDIVIDUATION: SUMMARY

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In certain situations (eg. Crowds) the restraint we normally have to refrain
from aggression becomes RELAXED and we may perform
aggressive/anti-social acts.
ZIMBARDO: said there is INDIVIDUAL behaviour (rational) and
DEINDIVIDUATED behaviour (irrational, do not conform to societies norms).
Being in a crowd can make a person unaware of their individuality, allowing
them to become FACELESS AND ANONOMOUS. The LARGER the group the
greater the anonymity.
MILGRAM
Shock experiment.
Participants more likely to give higher shocks if they couldn't see their victim.…read more

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They can be seen as an influence on behaviour- shaping a good
individual so they can act in an evil way.
ZIMBARDO PRISON SIMULATION: situation that the sound themselves in had
CORRUPTED their normal way of thinking- so they subjected the prisoners to
degrading experiences.
ABU GHRAIB: Iraqi prisoners of war were subjected to degrading treatment.
ZIMBARDO argued that the behaviour of the prison guard was due to SITUATIONAL
forces of being a guard in that particular prison environment, not the person.…read more

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BARD AND MOUNTCASTLE: rage in cats is caused by a detachment of the higher and
lower brain through LESIONING (cuts). Concluded that it is the HYPOTHALUMUS
that initiates the aggression.
FLYNN: stimulating the LATERAL HYPOTHALUMUS in cats made them more likely to
show predatorily aggression, but when the MEDICAL HYPOTHALUMUS was
stimulated, more vicious attack behaviour was more likely.
Animal research indicates that specific locations of the brain can be
stimulated, causing the showing of aggressive behaviour.…read more

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NELSON: positive correlation between level of ANDROGENS (MALE HORMONES)
circulating in the body and aggressive behaviour in MALE AND FEMALE prisoners.
This study is PROBLEMATIC, as levels of androgens were not measured at the
precise point when the aggressive act was being performed= cannot be 100% sure
that this was the ONLY variable affecting behaviour.
During puberty, aggression INCREASES when ANDROGEN levels are
HIGHER- more in males. ANIMAL STUDIES further support these
conclusions- but problems GENERALISING animal results to humans.…read more

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CAIRNS: SELECTIVE BREEDING could lead to more aggressive behaviour in ANIMALS.
Studied mice and created highly aggressive males and females- shows how important
aggressive factors are to understanding human behaviour.
BUT- GENERALISING APPLIES AND ETHICAL ISSUES APPLY AS IT IS RESEARCH ON
ANIMALS.
THEILGAARD: compared personality traits of XYY men compared to XY men and XXY
men (more feminine). Found that 1 IN 1000 MALES ARE XYY AND THAT NO
CHARACTERISTIC EXCEPT HEIGHT HAS BEEN ASSOCIATED WITH AGRESSION. VERY
ETHNOCENTIC.…read more

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Male jealousy was caused by the FEMALES suspected sexual INFEDELITY- if a
male thought she was cheating he would be concerned that she would leave
for a new partner and bear the child of another man.
It was an adaptive response leading to MALE-RETENTION STRATEGIES.
DALY AND WILSON: developed male-retention strategies to deter their mate from
leaving or cheating. These included VIGILANCE (male guarding) to violence.…read more

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Shows how war is used to
increase territory reproduce and pass on genes.
CHANGNON: warfare exists in modern day tribal societies- as they want the most
man power to increase status and chance of attracting males.
LEHMANN AND FELDMAN: men who are more aggressive and strong will win war
and survive to pass on genes- they have 2 traits= belligerence and bravery.…read more

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