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SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY: SUMMARY

Aggressive behaviour is either learned through either direct experience or by
observation.
DIRECT EXPERIENCE= skinner operant conditioning- REINFORCEMENT means
that behaviour is more likely to be repeated.
VICARIOUS EXPERIENCE= observational learning- copying a models
behaviour= IMITATION.
For behaviour to be imitated it has to be REWARDED.…

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In certain situations (eg. Crowds) the restraint we normally have to refrain
from aggression becomes RELAXED and we may perform
aggressive/anti-social acts.
ZIMBARDO: said there is INDIVIDUAL behaviour (rational) and
DEINDIVIDUATED behaviour (irrational, do not conform to societies norms).
Being in a crowd can make a person unaware of their…

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behaviour. They can be seen as an influence on behaviour- shaping a good
individual so they can act in an evil way.

ZIMBARDO PRISON SIMULATION: situation that the sound themselves in had
CORRUPTED their normal way of thinking- so they subjected the prisoners to
degrading experiences.

ABU GHRAIB: Iraqi prisoners…

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BARD AND MOUNTCASTLE: rage in cats is caused by a detachment of the higher and
lower brain through LESIONING (cuts). Concluded that it is the HYPOTHALUMUS
that initiates the aggression.

FLYNN: stimulating the LATERAL HYPOTHALUMUS in cats made them more likely to
show predatorily aggression, but when the MEDICAL HYPOTHALUMUS…

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NELSON: positive correlation between level of ANDROGENS (MALE HORMONES)
circulating in the body and aggressive behaviour in MALE AND FEMALE prisoners.
This study is PROBLEMATIC, as levels of androgens were not measured at the
precise point when the aggressive act was being performed= cannot be 100% sure
that this was…

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CAIRNS: SELECTIVE BREEDING could lead to more aggressive behaviour in ANIMALS.
Studied mice and created highly aggressive males and females- shows how important
aggressive factors are to understanding human behaviour.
BUT- GENERALISING APPLIES AND ETHICAL ISSUES APPLY AS IT IS RESEARCH ON
ANIMALS.

THEILGAARD: compared personality traits of XYY men…

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Male jealousy was caused by the FEMALES suspected sexual INFEDELITY- if a
male thought she was cheating he would be concerned that she would leave
for a new partner and bear the child of another man.
It was an adaptive response leading to MALE-RETENTION STRATEGIES.

DALY AND WILSON: developed male-retention…

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the children or terrorise the victims to flee their land. Shows how war is used to
increase territory reproduce and pass on genes.

CHANGNON: warfare exists in modern day tribal societies- as they want the most
man power to increase status and chance of attracting males.

LEHMANN AND FELDMAN: men…

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