Aggression Essays

Aggression essays

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  • Created on: 12-06-12 11:30
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Social learning theory
Behaviourist approach
Banduara ­ vicarious reinforcement
Attention ­ rentention ­ production ­ motivation
Bandura ­ study 1
Bandura ­ study two
Criticms ­ demand characteristics
However ­ cooper ­ video games
Williams ­ candian country
Other cultures ­ different experiences.
Biological approach .
Social learning theory is a behaviourist approach. The behaviourist approach suggests
that we learn through indirect learning, and our environment around us. According to
aggression a child will learn unsocialable behaviours by indirectly learning through peer,
parental or media influence.
Bandura suggested that aggression is through vicarious reinforcement. He proposed
four main steps for vicarious reinforcement.
Attention ­ the child can only learn if they attend to the models
Retention ­ in order to reproduce the models behaviour the child must
code and recall behaviour and consequences must be remembered.
Production ­ The child must be capable of reproducing the child's
Motivation ­ if the child see's the individual being punished, they are less
likely to copy the behaviour, than if they see them being rewarded.
Bandura conducted a research study where he had a group of girls and a group of boys
watch a model behave aggressively towards a bobo doll. Bandura found that after
watching the model behave aggressively the children were more likely show aggressive
behaviours towards the doll, showing vicarious reinforcement.
Bandura then conducted another research study where three groups of children would
watch a video of a model acting aggressively towards the bobo doll. One group would
see the model being punished for its behaviour, the other group would see the model
being rewarded, and the last group would see no consequence at all.
Bandura found that those who saw punishment were less likely to act aggressively
towards the doll than those who saw reinforcement, again supporting Banduras
reinforcement steps.

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However, the study has been criticed as one of the child stated "look mum thats a bobo
doll we're meant to hit it", showing demand characteristics. It also lacks ecological
validity as it was a lab based experiment, and the bobo doll cannot hit back, so it isn't
applicable to real life settings.
However, the social learning theory does explain why children who come from abusive
families or play a lot of violent video games are more likely to be aggressive.…read more

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This supports lebon's theory that the individual lowers their selfevaluation
when in a crowd.
However this was a metaanaylsis of newspaper articles so was subjected to only
mullens views and beliefs on what is a horrific killing and what is not. It can also be
culturally bias as Mullen may state that killings from his own culture are less horrific than
killings from a different culture.
Zimbardo created research into deindivudation by creating a shock experiment like
Milgrams.…read more

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Mccorkle ­ domination of the weak in prisions
Hard to define hazing. ­ 1/5 regarded having hazing 1/20 ­ violent hazing
Institutional aggression can occur within groups or between groups.
Institution aggression which occurs within groups can be because of interpersonal
situations. Or because of situational aggression, which is seen through the deprivational
Irwin and cressey suggested that through interpersonal situations, individuals in prisons
import their social histories and traits and that these influence their unsocial behaviour.…read more

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Passivity of bystanders ­ distinction between effect of intervention on severity
and length e.g. UN shortened Rwanda genocide but caused 800000 deaths in
100 days (history boys link)
Milgram argued that genocide is due to the obedience of authority. He later conducted a
research study into this where he got individuals to shock a stranger. He found that by an
authority figure, like a lab professor, saying "carry on" or prompting the participant on,
they were more likely to obey.…read more

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Adoption studies help to provide evidence to whether it is genetic factors which are the
main contribution to aggressive behaviour or if it is the environment. If there is a positive
correlation between aggressive behaviour in the adoptive child, and aggressive
behaviour in the biological parent it shows a relationship between genetics and
aggressive behaviour. However if there is a positive relationship between aggressive
behaviour in the adopted child and aggressive behaviour in the adopted children, it
shows that environment is the main influence.…read more

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This is a deterministic approach as it suggests we have no freewill how we behave,
however it is due to our genetics and MAOA hormone.
Neural and hormonal aggression ­
1. The biological approach suggests ­
2. Neurotransmitters are ­
3. Two types ­ Serotonin and dopamine ­ both contribute to aggressive
4. Serotonin is thought to reduce aggression by slowing down responses to
emotional stimlu that might otherwise lead to an aggressive response.
5.…read more

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Gender bias ­ only males however females ­ high testosterone higher status in
Although the link between dopamine and aggressive behaviours aren't as well
established as the link with serotonin, there is some evidence to show that there is a
link. This was shown by increasing dopamine activity via amphetamines which
produced aggressive behaviours.…read more

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Evolutionary approach ­
What is the evolutionary approach
Men ­ no certain perternity ­ cuckoldry ­ consequence ­ invest resources.
Bus ­ direct guarding ­ negative reinforcement ­ coming home early
Wilson ­ questionnaire ­ women ­ "jealous" ­ twice as likely ­ violence.
Men guard partner against infidelity ­ benefits and costs
Daly and Wilson ­ death because of infidelity was because of control, no
intention to kill ­ china ­ wife kill ­ three years.…read more

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really helpful

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