First 306 words of the document:
`Milgram might argue that the contributions his research has made to our knowledge about
human nature and obedience are invaluable and that this has outweighed any ethical
concerns. In this case the end justifies the means'.
Not representative of the holocaust
o Less resistance in the same situation?
o Psychologically damaged INVESTIGATE
o Family harmed as well?
o Nature of the experiment
o Shocks weren't real, yet led participant to believe they killed someone.
o Victim wasn't a real participant.
o Participants displayed behaviour similar to a nervous breakdown.
o Could cause depression
o They were videoed without consent
Disrespect for humans
Unhealthy obsession with holocaust.
Right to withdraw Physically possible, but the prods, such as `You have no other
choice you must go on', might lead them to believe that they cannot withdraw.
Person watching the `teacher' could be there to watch that the teacher doesn't get over
stressed. However this measure is different for different people. Therefore this isn't
Consent not informed believed they were participating in a learning activity.
Volunteer Sample and all men population validity?
Laboratory study ecological validity?
Orne and Holland
o Suggested that participant would know people in psychological experiments
don't come to harm. Therefore more likely to obey.
Evidence by Milgram's questionnaire asking if they believed the study
1 year later:
24% doubted but believed
11.4% had doubts but thought probably not
2.4% certain no harm
o That is 37.8% had doubts. Significant number
o DEMAND CHARACTISTICS also could be
happening in the questionnaire.
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Can't be generalised as 26/40 went all the way here, 90% in Spain, 50% in UK, and in
16% in Australian females.
Historical bias could exist.
The victim was someone who seemed mildmannered. This could encourage bullying.…read more