First 347 words of the document:
Desertification the way in which climate change and overgrazing turn previously fertile
land into desert.
Food security the extent to which a country can rely upon food supplies, e.g., upon the
weather, or, if unable to grow all its food, the extent to which it can pay for imports to feed
Debt crisis where many African countries have become so heavily indebted that
repayments sometimes exceed their GNP.
Cash crops those crops sold for income, rather than one's own food supply.
()(s) : doubled area of Africa affected by Malaria.
more deaths, pressure on healthcare, less able workers.
(+)(env/ec) : increased rainfall in the highland areas of eastern africa
better crop production, income.
() (env) : damaged ecosystems
glaciers of Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania disappear.
large mammals threatened by lack of food and water, and hunting.
2050% of species to be extinct in Africa in the near future.
()(env/soc) : reduction in soil moisture and runoff due to high temperatures enhancing
African countries affected by water stress (from 8 to 18 countries)
()(env/soc) : rise in sea level threatens coastal infrastructure in areas e.g Gambia and N.
coastal flooding leaves behind salty deposits which kills vegetation.
more intense rainfall = more flooding.
() (env) : desertification degrades land, reduces moisture content and kills vegetation.
soil is heated carbon stocks evaporate.
eroded soil less support for vegetation > less carbon in soil eroded
() (env) : affecting precipitation patterns
western africa decline in rainfall = desertification.
Money is squandered on guns and wars.
Population increase makes many problems worse. eg. Water stress.
AID's is a huge problem in Africa.
Major rivers flow through many countries
agree on managing water
Spend more on mitigation
low cost technology for controlling wind erosion.
Spend money on healthcare rather than defence.
The Poverty Trap:
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Are African farmers trapped into poverty?
Because of the debt crisis, African farmers are tying to reduce their debt mainly through the
production of cash crops. This means that they sell all of their crops, leaving very little for
them. The money is then used to write of the debt, so they get very little. This has lead to
forest clearance for commercial farming.
Does Global warming make this poverty trap worse?
Global warming is likely to increase forest clearance.…read more