Aetiologies of Depression

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Assumptions For The Argument Against The Argument
Hormones PRE- MENSTRUAL SYNDROME- oestrogen and Hormonal changes associated with menstruation,
progesterone levels change throughout a the menopause and child birth have been the
women's menstrual cycle. As a woman reaches suggested cause for some sufferers of
the end of her cycle she may experience depression. However, COCHRANE says that the
bloatedness, swollen breasts, irritability, mood hormonal or physiological changes experienced
swings, headaches, constipation etc. In some during this time have any direct effect on
cases, some women experience symptoms of psychological functioning. WILLIAMS AND
depression at some points in their cycle. HARGREAVES- while hormonal changes of the
ABRAHAMOWITZ ET AL- looked at women menstrual cycle aren't enough on their own to
patients admitted to psychiatric wards, 41% were cause clinical depression, they may be responsible
actually admitted the day before or the day of the for re-activating memories or feelings from a
It is possible that hormonal changes may cause
start of menstruation. HALBREICH ET AL- previous period of major depression. CALLAGHAN
depression in some individuals especially in interviewed women from general population and AND O'CARROLL- while it's clear that there is a
conditions such as premenstrual syndrome, post found that 43% reported depressive symptoms strong relationship between hormone levels and
natal depression etc. These conditions are strongly during their menstrual cycle. post- natal depression, there is no direct evidence
associated with hormone levels that hormones are the casual factor. Social factors
POST- NATAL DEPRESSION- this refers to the time are also involved at this time and can't be ruled
just after the birth of the baby. This is a time of out. The new mum has to get used to a new
extensive hormonal changes. Around 20% of routine, her attention is focussed around the
women report moderate depression around this demands of the new baby, her sleep patterns will
time, and for a few depression is so bad that it led be disrupted, her social life may suffer and her
to infanticide expectations of motherhood may also be
challenged. So motherhood can be a very stressful
time and it might be this along with the amount of

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Behavioural Explanations- Reinforcements LEWISOHN It ignores biological factors and thoughts
Events such as loss of a job could lead to Most do get `over' depression once treated so
depression because of a reduction of can get out of the cycle
positive reinforcement
Some have depressing tendencies
A depressed person may spend less time
doing social activities which at first leads Some just lack social skills... not all that lack social
to friends and family being concerned and skills will become depressed
attention is paid
Reductionist...…read more

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The Cognitive- Behavioural Model- Learned SELIGMAN AND MAIER- dogs were restrained so It doesn't account for gender differences. Women
Helplessness that they couldn't avoid electric shocks and and men handle depression and helplessness
eventually just seemed to just accept receiving differently. Women handle their emotions whilst
the shocks. Later when the dogs could have men tend to internalise their emotions and get
escaped the shocks but didn't even try to escape angry.
the shocks. Seligman called this learned
helplessness.…read more

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