Aerobic Respiration

A word document with notes on: Glycolysis; link reaction; Krebs cycle and the electron transport chain.

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  • Created on: 23-03-12 08:16
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Helena Bonici Biology 31/10/2011
13EA2 Respiration
It is the initial stage of both aerobic and anaerobic respiration and occurs in the cytoplasm of living
The enzyme controlled reactions are grouped into four
Activation of glucose by phosphylation ~ it is the
addition of phosphate molecules* to cause glucose to
be more reactive.
Splitting of the phosphorylated glucose ~ when each
glucose molecule is split into two 3C molecules (triose
Oxidation of TP ~ hydrogen is removed from each of
the TP and transferred to an H-carrier (NAD) to
produce NAD-H.
The production of ATP ~ the TP is converted into
pyruvate by enzyme-controlled reactions and as it
does, it converts two ATP from ADP.
The overall yield is:
Two molecules of ATP ~ four a produced by two are
used in the phsophylation process.
Two molecules of NADH ~ from the oxidation of TP
and they have potential to yield ATP.
Two molecules of pyruvate ~ which is then needed in
the Link reaction.
*The phosphate molecules come from the hydrolysis of two ATP (so
the energy also lowers the activation energy needed for the other
stages ­ it `activates' the glucose)
The TP is the same as that found in photosynthesis ­ light independent reaction.
The pyruvate from glycolysis is actively transported to the matrix of the mitochondria.
It then undergoes:
Oxidation ~ the hydrogen is removed and accepted by NAD to make NAD-H. It also makes a 2C
molecule acetyl group.
Combination ~ the acetyl group combines with coenzyme A (CoA) to produce acetylcoenzyme A.
The overall yield is:
One molecule of NADH.
One molecule of CO2.
Pyruvate + NAD + CoA acetyl CoA + NAD-H + CO2

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Helena Bonici Biology 31/10/2011
13EA2 Respiration
Named after Hans Krebs (British scientist), it is a series of oxidation-reduction reactions that occur
in the matrix of the mitochondria.
There are the following 2 steps to this:
Combination ~ the acetylcoenzyme A* combines with a 4C molecule to produce a 6C molecule.
Substrate-level phosphorylation ~ the 6Cmolecule loses H + CO2 and becomes a 4C molecule and
produces 1ATP.…read more


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