Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

Structure of ATP

Importance of ATP

Uses of ATP

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Energy currency
Energy from respiration used to make ATP from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and
inorganic phosphate (Pi)
ATP is hydrolyzed to release energy where it is needed in cells
Organic base adenine
Pentose sugar ribose
3 phosphate groups
Hydrolysis of ATP to ADP is catalysed by the enzyme ATPase
Removal of 1 phosphate group (Pi) from a molecule of ATP yields 30.7kJ mol-1 of
energy (it is exergonic)
o ATP (ATPase) ADP + Pi + 30.7kJ mol-1
Phosphorylation of ADP to ATP is catalysed by the enzyme ATPsynthase
The addition of 1 phosphate group (Pi) to a molecule of ADP requires 30.7kJ mol-1 of
energy (it is endergonic)
o ADP + Pi + 30.7kJ mol-1 (ATPsynthase) ATP
Oxidative phosphorylation occurs during respiration in all aerobic cells
Photophosphorylation occurs during photosynthesis in cells containing chlorophyll
Combustion of glucose would result in so much energy being released at once that
the temperature of cells would increase so much that it would destroy the cells
however respiration releases energy in stages in the form of ATP so that this does
not happen.

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ATP cannot be stored so is synthesized as it is required
ATP cannot be transported between cells; it must be used in the cell in which it was
Energy from ATP is used for muscle contractions, homeostasis, anabolic processes,
nerve transmissions, secretions and active transport.…read more


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