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Additional Physics
Distance-time graphs
The steeper the line on a distance- time graph, the greater the speed it represents.

Speed (m/s) = distance (m)
Time (s)

Velocity and acceleration
Velocity is a speed in a given direction.
Acceleration is change of velocity per second.
A body travelling at a…

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Using graphs

Slope of line = height of triangle / base of triangle

Speeding up and slowing down
Forces between objects
When two objects interact, they always exert equal and opposite forces on each other.
The unit of force is the newton.

Resultant force

Object at the start Resultant…

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Work done = energy transferred

Work done (J) = force (N) x distance moved in the direction of the force (m)

Kinetic Energy
Elastic potential energy is the energy stored in an elastic object when work is done on the
The kinetic energy of a moving object depends on…

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A spark from a charged object can make powder grains or certain gases explode.
To eliminate static electricity:
o Use antistatic materials,
o Earth metal pipes and objects.

Current electricity
Electric circuits
Every component has its own agreed symbol.
A circuit diagram shows how components are connected together.
A battery…

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Filament lamp: resistance increases with the increase of the filament temperature.
Diode: `forward' resistance low; `reverse' resistance high.

Thermistor: resistance decreases if its temperature increases.

LDR: resistance decreases if the light intensity on it increases.

Series circuits

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For components in series:
o The current is the same in each component.
o The potential differences add to give the total potential difference.
o The resistances add to give the total resistance.

Parallel circuits
For components in parallel:
o The potential difference is the same across each component.

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Cables consist of two or three insulated copper wires surrounded by an outer layer of
flexible plastic material.
Sockets and plugs are made of stiff plastic materials which enclose the electrical connections.
In a three pin plug, the live wire is brown, the neutral wire is blue, and the earth…

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Change in the nucleus Particle emitted

1 decay Nucleus loses 2 protons and 2 2 protons and 2 neutrons
(Alpha radiation) neutrons emitted as an alpha particle
2 decay A neutron in the nucleus An electron is created in the
(Beta radiation) changes into a proton. nucleus and emitted at…


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