Additional Physic Revision Notes

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Additional Physics
Distance-time graphs
The steeper the line on a distance- time graph, the greater the speed it represents.
Speed (m/s) = distance (m)
Time (s)
Velocity and acceleration
Velocity is a speed in a given direction.
Acceleration is change of velocity per second.
A body travelling at a steady speed is accelerating if its direction is changing.
Velocity-time graphs
The slope of the line on a velocity-time graph represents acceleration.
The area under the line on a velocity-time graph represents distance travelled.

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Using graphs
Slope of line = height of triangle / base of triangle
Speeding up and slowing down
Forces between objects
When two objects interact, they always exert equal and opposite forces on each other.
The unit of force is the newton.
Resultant force
Object at the start Resultant force Effect on the object
1 At rest Zero Stays at rest
2 Moving Zero Velocity stays the same
Non-zero in the same direction as the
3 Moving Accelerates
direction of motion as the object.…read more

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Work done = energy transferred
Work done (J) = force (N) x distance moved in the direction of the force (m)
Kinetic Energy
Elastic potential energy is the energy stored in an elastic object when work is done on the
The kinetic energy of a moving object depends on its mass and its speed.
Kinetic energy (J) = ½ × mass (kg) × speed²
Collisions and explosions
Momentum has size and direction.…read more

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A spark from a charged object can make powder grains or certain gases explode.
To eliminate static electricity:
o Use antistatic materials,
o Earth metal pipes and objects.
Current electricity
Electric circuits
Every component has its own agreed symbol.
A circuit diagram shows how components are connected together.
A battery consists of two or more cells connected together.…read more

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Filament lamp: resistance increases with the increase of the filament temperature.
Diode: `forward' resistance low; `reverse' resistance high.
Thermistor: resistance decreases if its temperature increases.
LDR: resistance decreases if the light intensity on it increases.…read more

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For components in series:
o The current is the same in each component.
o The potential differences add to give the total potential difference.
o The resistances add to give the total resistance.
Parallel circuits
For components in parallel:
o The potential difference is the same across each component.
o The total current is the sum of the currents through each component.
o The bigger the resistance of a component, the smaller its current is.…read more

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Cables consist of two or three insulated copper wires surrounded by an outer layer of
flexible plastic material.
Sockets and plugs are made of stiff plastic materials which enclose the electrical connections.
In a three pin plug, the live wire is brown, the neutral wire is blue, and the earth wire is
yellow and green. The earth wire is used to earth the metal case of a mains appliance.…read more

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Change in the nucleus Particle emitted
1 decay Nucleus loses 2 protons and 2 2 protons and 2 neutrons
(Alpha radiation) neutrons emitted as an alpha particle
2 decay A neutron in the nucleus An electron is created in the
(Beta radiation) changes into a proton. nucleus and emitted at high
The discovery of the nucleus
Alpha particles in a beam are sometime scattered through large angles when they are
directed at a thin metal foil.…read more


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