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Diagnosing Addiction:
Addiction refers to a range of behaviours including alcohol and drug dependence, issues with food, exercise, sex and
may other behaviours. Griffiths (2005) said that addiction is a vicious cycle ­ once you are in it, it becomes very hard
to get out. He came up with certain criteria that must be met in order for an individual to say that they have an
1. Salience: the importance of the behaviour to the individual where they become totally pre-occupied with the
behaviour.…read more

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Will be irritable and restless when trying to cut back on gambling
When losing money due to gambling, the individual will often return the next day to win their money back
They will lie to family members and therapist about the extent to which they gamble (make it seem as though
they gamble less than they actually do)
Will have committed an illegal act to get money for gambling (these include forgery, fraud, theft)
Have jeopardised or lost meaningful relationships, job or educational or career…read more

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Biological Models of Addiction:
The biological approach emphasises the influence of genetics and neurochemical factors in explaining the onset and
maintenance of addictive behaviours. The model argues that people are the most susceptible to developing an
addiction in the initiation phase because they have a predisposed biological vulnerability and therefore will make
them more likely to relapse when trying to stop their addictive behaviour.…read more

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They also found that individuals with a addiction.
SLC6A3-9 gene were significantly less likely to
have started smoking before 16. This study Lesieur (1988) conducted family studies and
provides evidence that the SLC6A3-9 gene may pathological gamblers. They found incidence of
influence initiation of a nicotine and hence a about 20% of pathological gambling in first
smoking addiction. degree relatives. This suggests that genetics
play a part in a gambling addiction.…read more

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Role of Dopamine:
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that is involved with many processes in the brain and is said to also be involved in
addiction. The model proposes that the onset and development of addiction is influenced through a genetic
predisposition where people with the A1 variant of the DRD2 gene are more likely to develop an addiction. They have
fewer receptor sites in the pleasure centre of the brain which means that these areas receive lees excitation and
stimulation that the average person.
1.…read more

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Deterministic: takes away the responsibility from the user claiming it as a result of changing brain chemistry ­
however, individuals do choose to start the addictive behaviour.
INITIATION Nicotine has been shown to increase dopamine When an individual wins a bat or gains
release within the brain resulting in a positive something from gambling, they will get a
feeling. The forms a memory link between the pleasurable feeling via the mesolimbic pathway.…read more

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This supports the
fact that nicotine plays a part in the dopamine
reward system and is linked with a smoking
RELAPSE As the mesolimbic pathway is linked to the When the individual is attempting to stop
pre-frontal cortex, this makes smokers highly gambling, they are likely to relapse because the
sensitive to reminders of past highs achieved withdrawal symptoms becomes too much and
from smoking.…read more

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Cognitive Models of Addiction:
This model of addiction believes that addictions are a result of the way we think and process situational stimuli.
There are four types of cognitive models: Expectancy model, self-medication model, self-efficacy model and rational
choice theory.
Expectancy model:
This model proposes that individual have expectations about the outcomes of the addictive behaviour and this
contributes to their excessive use. They will generally have positive expectations rather than negative expectations
for the behaviour.
1.…read more

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Maintenance: when the person is addicted to the behaviour, the psychological symptoms they are trying to treat
become the withdrawal symptoms which increase the likelihood that they will continue to do the behaviour and
maintain it.
a. Parrot (1998) found that in the short-term a cigarette relieves the stress from withdrawal symptoms but in
the long term smoking increases stress so the addict needs to smoke more often.
3.…read more


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