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Page 1

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Biological

INITIATION: Genes + behavioural disorders, 50-60% heritability,
Medical condition

MAINTENANCE: DRD2 gene 2/3rd of dead alcoholics + 1/5th of non-A,
Damage to PFC -> Drug Tricks -> Dopaminergia -> Higher
Tolerance

RELAPSE: Withdrawal Symptoms, Damage to PFC = Poor decision making.

EVALUATION: Monkeys + cocaine
Life experiences + genetic…

Page 2

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INITIATION: False / exaggerated beliefs, Self medication, Cost < Benefits,
Expectations

MAINTENANCE: Smokers + stress relief, Expectations, Withdrawal symptoms
Distorted beliefs

RELAPSE: False beliefs, S- expectation bad WD, Triggers + Temptation
S- Low SE= relapse.

EVALUATION: Meta Analysis ­ Decision
Sexually abused women
addicts who said costs > benefits =…

Page 3

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Learning theory = Token economy
60% Heroin clear pee.
doesn't address the issues of addiction
often leads to another addiction

CBT = Avoidance techniques, Self talk, Coping skills, Relaxation
Most Effective on High Dependency.
Better than nothing 54% , 7%
No better than standard counselling
Relaxation + self talk =…

Page 4

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S- tra predicted Gambling frequency in adolescents + adults.

EVALUATION
Intentions don't determine actual behaviour
Previous behaviours ignored
S- a person may expect to give up in 5 years time but don't have a
plan to do so.
Often measure when sober ­ questionnaires also.
Alcohol decreases cognitive capacity
"…

Page 5

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Familiarity,
Type of gambling = maintenance
8 heuristics.
EVOLUTION, riskkkky! cant be proved/refuted.


SMOKING ADDICTION
Initiation: cool? Respect!
Maintenance: Dopaminergia.
Relapse: (-)ve withdrawal symptoms, poor decision making, (-)ve
reinforcement

Evaluation:
Research ­ children at risky age.
Init + maint = many try smoking without becoming addicted
children 2x likely to…

Page 6

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Low SE indicates internet addiction.
Rosenbergs SE scale
Cause or consequence?
371 uk students 18% pathological internet users had
Low SE on Rosenbergs scale.

Attributions:
Internal or External
S- Smokers blamed addiction on external factors.
Druggys in prison blamed drugs for crimes, despite being
criminals before drugs!
+ supports external…

Page 7

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Initiation of drinking is affected by peers, and during
maintenance, alcoholics often find drinking friends.
Supporting the importance of peers

LIFE EXPERIENCES.

MEDIA.
140 scenes, 47 film. Drugs positively
87 popular films, 25% showed no addictive behaviour

Exposure to smoking in films had a significant effect on
taking up smoking.…

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