Addiction

Notes for Addiction, they're very brief as I made the notes from notes i'd already done.

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Biological
INITIATION: Genes + behavioural disorders, 50-60% heritability,
Medical condition
MAINTENANCE: DRD2 gene 2/3rd of dead alcoholics + 1/5th of non-A,
Damage to PFC -> Drug Tricks -> Dopaminergia -> Higher
Tolerance
RELAPSE: Withdrawal Symptoms, Damage to PFC = Poor decision making.
EVALUATION: Monkeys + cocaine
Life experiences + genetic vulnerability,
Adult volunteers + Ritalin,
Addiction = disease.
Autistic + torettes
R e d u c t i o n i s t.
Learning Theory
INITIATION: Classical ­ NO
Operant ­ Reinforcement, Rewards, Griffiths
SLT- Observing peers, avoiding certain, Self efficacy
MAINTENANCE: classical ­ UCS= Alcohol UCR= Craving NS=Pub,
Pub= CS Craving = CR
Operant ­ (+)(-) reinforcement
SLT ­ Observing peers.
RELAPSE: classical = Triggers (maintenance)
Operant = (-)ve reinforcement
SLT ­ Triggers + memories = relapse, Study on internet addiction + SE
EVALUATION:
Classical Vietnam veterans + heroin
Spontaneous desire
Initiation ­ no explained
Operant Inability to quit
Experimenting (N)
SLT Smokers + pressure + Low SE
optimistic
Cognitive

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Learning theory = Token economy
60% Heroin clear pee.
doesn't address the issues of addiction
often leads to another addiction
CBT = Avoidance techniques, Self talk, Coping skills, Relaxation
Most Effective on High Dependency.
Better than nothing 54% , 7%
No better than standard counselling
Relaxation + self talk = noo with smoking
AO3 ­ INTERVIEWS + QUESTIONAIRES.
PUBLIC HEALTH INTERVENTIONS.
Doctors advice = 70% of Smokers visit doctors
RUSSELL
Smoking quitline = 50% better chance # self help.…read more

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S- tra predicted Gambling frequency in adolescents + adults.
EVALUATION
Intentions don't determine actual behaviour
Previous behaviours ignored
S- a person may expect to give up in 5 years time but don't have a
plan to do so.
Often measure when sober ­ questionnaires also.
Alcohol decreases cognitive capacity
" " increases risky behaviour.…read more

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Familiarity,
Type of gambling = maintenance
8 heuristics.
EVOLUTION, riskkkky! cant be proved/refuted.
SMOKING ADDICTION
Initiation: cool? Respect!
Maintenance: Dopaminergia.
Relapse: (-)ve withdrawal symptoms, poor decision making, (-)ve
reinforcement
Evaluation:
Research ­ children at risky age.
Init + maint = many try smoking without becoming addicted
children 2x likely to smoke it parents do.…read more

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Low SE indicates internet addiction.
Rosenbergs SE scale
Cause or consequence?
371 uk students 18% pathological internet users had
Low SE on Rosenbergs scale.
Attributions:
Internal or External
S- Smokers blamed addiction on external factors.
Druggys in prison blamed drugs for crimes, despite being
criminals before drugs!
+ supports external excuse.
Cognitive factors:
Unrealistic Optimism (I'll be fine)
False beliefs and risks
Perceptions of being in control
Expectancies
Attitudes
s- Parents attitudes were predictive of childrens
attitudes towards addiction.…read more

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Initiation of drinking is affected by peers, and during
maintenance, alcoholics often find drinking friends.
Supporting the importance of peers
LIFE EXPERIENCES.
MEDIA.
140 scenes, 47 film. Drugs positively
87 popular films, 25% showed no addictive behaviour
Exposure to smoking in films had a significant effect on
taking up smoking.
Films SO show drugs (-)vely, Violence + crime
+ Usa offer money to film makers to show drugs
negatively.
MEDIA CHANGES.
BBC- "really useful guide to alcohol"
Didn't work.…read more

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