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Page 1

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INITIATION: Genes + behavioural disorders, 50-60% heritability,
Medical condition

MAINTENANCE: DRD2 gene 2/3rd of dead alcoholics + 1/5th of non-A,
Damage to PFC -> Drug Tricks -> Dopaminergia -> Higher

RELAPSE: Withdrawal Symptoms, Damage to PFC = Poor decision making.

EVALUATION: Monkeys + cocaine
Life experiences + genetic…

Page 2

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INITIATION: False / exaggerated beliefs, Self medication, Cost < Benefits,

MAINTENANCE: Smokers + stress relief, Expectations, Withdrawal symptoms
Distorted beliefs

RELAPSE: False beliefs, S- expectation bad WD, Triggers + Temptation
S- Low SE= relapse.

EVALUATION: Meta Analysis ­ Decision
Sexually abused women
addicts who said costs > benefits =…

Page 3

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Learning theory = Token economy
60% Heroin clear pee.
doesn't address the issues of addiction
often leads to another addiction

CBT = Avoidance techniques, Self talk, Coping skills, Relaxation
Most Effective on High Dependency.
Better than nothing 54% , 7%
No better than standard counselling
Relaxation + self talk =…

Page 4

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S- tra predicted Gambling frequency in adolescents + adults.

Intentions don't determine actual behaviour
Previous behaviours ignored
S- a person may expect to give up in 5 years time but don't have a
plan to do so.
Often measure when sober ­ questionnaires also.
Alcohol decreases cognitive capacity

Page 5

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Type of gambling = maintenance
8 heuristics.
EVOLUTION, riskkkky! cant be proved/refuted.

Initiation: cool? Respect!
Maintenance: Dopaminergia.
Relapse: (-)ve withdrawal symptoms, poor decision making, (-)ve

Research ­ children at risky age.
Init + maint = many try smoking without becoming addicted
children 2x likely to…

Page 6

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Low SE indicates internet addiction.
Rosenbergs SE scale
Cause or consequence?
371 uk students 18% pathological internet users had
Low SE on Rosenbergs scale.

Internal or External
S- Smokers blamed addiction on external factors.
Druggys in prison blamed drugs for crimes, despite being
criminals before drugs!
+ supports external…

Page 7

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Initiation of drinking is affected by peers, and during
maintenance, alcoholics often find drinking friends.
Supporting the importance of peers


140 scenes, 47 film. Drugs positively
87 popular films, 25% showed no addictive behaviour

Exposure to smoking in films had a significant effect on
taking up smoking.…


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