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A group of organisms with similar morphology, physiology and behaviour, which can interbreed to produce fertile offspring, and which are
reproductively isolated (in Place, time or behaviour) from other species.
Ecosystem: A system that includes all living organisms in an area as well as its physical environment functioning together as a unit.
Habitat: a place where an organism lives.
Microhabitat: small part of a habitat.
Community: all the populations of organisms in a habitat.
Population: a group of organisms of the same species, living and breathing together in a habitat (or part of it)
The specific space that a species will occupy and the way it uses its environment.
Different niches avoid competition if two species occupy the same niche they will compete with each other .The better adapted organisms
will out-compete the other and exclude it from the habitat, e.g. this happened to the red squirrel when the grey squirrel was introduced.
Behavioural adaptations: any actions by organism which help them to survive or reproduce. For example:
When agoutis bury Brazil nuts, this is a behaviour which will aid their survival by providing a future food source.
The Costa Rica palm, Socratea durissima, has stilt like roots which grow towards a sunny patch and slowly pull the whole tree towards
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Physiological adaptations: features of the internal workings of organisms which help them to survive or reproduce. For example:
Danish scurvy grass, has spread inland with the increasing use of salt on icy roads, the plant has a physiological adaptation allowing it
to tolerate high salt concentration. Therefore it is able to occupy a newly created niche unavailable to other inland plants.
Thermophilous bacteria can tolerate the highest temperatures of any organism, found in thermal vents deep in the ocean.…read more