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Actus Reus:

Prohibited conduct, circumstance, or result.
Can be an act or omission
Must be voluntary.
Law com: has called for the term actus reus to be replaced with `external
elements' and mens rea with `fault elements' to reflect better their true
Lord Diplock in Miller (1983): it would…

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murder. D owed V a duty as parent, but D2 also owed a duty as she
had assumed parental responsibility.
c) Contractual duty:
Pittwood (1902): D worked as level crossing operator. He forgot to
close the gate and V was killed by a train. The court held that D

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omission however, it would be lawful since where the patient is unable
to give consent to treatment; the doctor's duty to intervene is limited to
cases where the intervention serves some interest of the patient.
HoL held: it was an omission. The true cause of the death would be the…


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