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Acids have a pH of less than seven, bases have a pH of more than seven. When bases are dissolved
in water they are known as alkalis.

Hydrogen ions make a solution acidic ­ acids are corrosive
Hydroxide ions make a solution alkaline.
Equal numbers of hydroxide and hydrogen ions…

Page 2

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E.g. 2HCL + Mg ----> MgCl2 + H2


Acid + Metal -----> Metal salt + Hydrogen

The more reactive the metal, the faster the reaction will happen ­ very reactive metals react
explosively.

The speed of the reaction can be told by the rate a which the hydrogen bubbles are…

Page 3

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An acid reacts with a base to form water (neutral solution) and a salt

h+ + OH- -----> H20 This is an example of a neutralisation.


Real life example of neutralisation:
1) Indigestion is caused by too much hydrochloric acid in the stomach. Indigestion tablets
contain bases such as magnesium…

Page 4

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Ammonia can be neutralised with acid to form ammonium salts. Ammonia dissolves in
water to form an alkaline solution. This solution can be neutralised by the addition of an
acid to form ammonium salts e.g. Ammonia (solution) + Hydrochloric acid ---> Ammonium
chloride
or Ammonia + nitric acid ---> ammonium…

Page 5

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(Won't react with copper on its own as it is lower than hydrogen in the reactivity series. )

1) Heat up acid using a Bunsen burner until it is boiling in order to provide the particles with
more kinetic energy to increase the chances of successful collisions and increase the…

Page 6

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The excess base will sink to the bottom of the flask when all of the acid is neutralised. We then
filter the mixture to get rid of any excess base this will collect in the filter funnel
(carbonates/hydroxides.) Then evaporate off the water from the liquid by heating and you…

Page 7

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These protons become surrounded by water molecules to keep them in solution ­ we call it a
hydrated proton.


He defined an alkali as a substance which dissolves in water and dissociates to form hydroxide ions.
An alkali is a base which dissolves in water, and produces OH- ions (hydroxide…

Page 8

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dissolves it forms a low concentration solution (or dilute acid). The more concentrated an acid the
faster the reaction will occur.

Whereas the strength of an acid depends on how much is ionises/dissociates in water.

Strong and weak acids ­ more acidic takes longer to react/test using indicator

A strong…

Page 9

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Titrations are used e.g. in medicine to find out exactly how much acid is needed to
neutralise a certain quantity of alkali or how much alkali is needed to neutralise a certain
quantity of acid. You need to know the exact amount as you can't'/don't want to add in
excess…

Page 10

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Need to know the indicators needed

Reacting a strong acid + strong alkali We can use any indicator
Reacting a strong acid and a weak alkali We use Methyl Orange
Reacting a weak acid and strong alkali We use Phenolphthalein

Equation

m1 x v1 = m2 x v2



1cm3 =…

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