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Limitations Of The Approach
Eccentric or abnormal? Some behaviours are eccentric not E.g. running naked across pitch= eccentric,
abnormal, but eccentric can be a sign of talking to an invisible person= abnormal
mental illness
Change over time Social norms change over time E.g. in the UK homosexual acts were a criminal
offence until 1967
Human rights abuse People with mental illness have been treated Szasz 1974 claimed diagnosis of mental illness
badly (locked away, abused and ignored) is a form of social control
Abnormal or criminal? Are people who violate legal rules are seen Committing fraud is criminal, rape or mass
as criminal not abnormal? murder is criminal but also abnormal
Value of breaking social Can be beneficial, without it we wouldn't get Suffragettes broke social norms which led to
norms social change. electoral reform
Situational and Behaviour can be context specific. E.g. wearing a bikini on a beach= normal,
developmental norms wearing a bikini in the arctic= abnormal
Cultural relativism What is abnormal in one culture may be E.g. mud snorkelling in Wales, tomatoes
acceptable in another throwing in Spain, different displays of grief
Deviating from social norms:
Society develops a set of
acceptable behaviour, people
who violate the social rules
developed are seen as
abnormal.…read more

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Failure to function Rosenhan and Seligman concept of dysfunction:
adequately: · Personal distress
Is showing an inability to · Maladaptive behaviour
· Unpredictability
cope with everyday activities. · Observer discomfort
Individuals only need · Violation of moral standards
professional help if their The more of these indicators present the more
abnormal the person is.
behaviour is dysfunctional e.
g. unable to hold down a job, Global assessment of functioning scale: used to measure the
maintain relationship and degree of functioning a person has. 100= super functioning,
self harming. under 10= persistent danger to themselves/ suicidal
Limitations Of The Approach
Abnormality not always accompanied by E.g. Harold Shipman a GP who killed 15 patients, Peter Sutcliff (the
dysfunction- some psychopaths have been hard to Yorkshire ripper) a serial killer and Steve Wright the Ipswich murderer
detect because they appear to live normal lives of 5 prostitutes.
Subjective nature of Rosenhan and Seligman's It is difficult to measure personal stress, people with inappropriate
components manic don't appear to be distressed but their behaviour is not normal
Exceptions to the rule E.g. Distress is normal when we loose a loved one
Cultural relativism Cochrane and Sashidharan- racism and prejudice have significant
impact on psychological wellbeing.
Not the whole picture- it is only a way of seeing if Cromer- abnormality is not indicated by dysfunction alone. E.g. going
someone needs professional help on a hunger strike is not looking after yourself but there is justice
behind the behaviour.…read more

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Criteria for ideal mental health by Jahoda
Positive attitudes to self Sense of identity, self respect, confidence Deviation from ideal
mental health:
Self actualisation Abraham Maslow- `we all have potential and Looks at positive rather
constantly thrive to fill it' problems occur
than negative. Absence of
when we cant.
criteria leads to
Resistance to stress Ability to tolerate anxiety abnormality. The fewer of
Personal autonomy People that are not dependent on others can these criteria they meet
remain stable in stressful situations the more likely they are to
Accurate perception of reality Seeing oneself and the world in realistic terms develop a mental
Adapting to the environment Being competent at adjusting to change
Limitations Of The Approach
Possible benefits Stress can provide motivation to achieve, but when people experience too much stress they may need
of stress help, this doesn't always indicate they have a mental health problem.
Cultural relativism Personal growth is important in individualist cultures, whereas it is more normal to strive for a better
community in collectivist cultures. In some cultures future plans are made for you by elders, to
organise your own future may be seen as abnormal.
Perceptions of Change over time and differ between cultures. E.g. seeing or hearing someone who has died could be
reality normal in one culture and psychotic in others.
Difficulty of self- The criteria are a set of ideals, very few people are bale to meet them all, so the majority of people
actualizing would be abnormal.…read more

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Also known as
the medical
rate= the
probability of
Factors causing malfunction A01 getting a
Brain damage (organic disorders) E.g. Alzheimer's disease is caused by loss/ malformation of cells disorder.
in parts of the nervous system
Infection can cause deterioration E.g. syphilis can lead to bizarre behaviour
of the brain cells Torrey- found increased levels of schizophrenia in children who's mothers suffered
with flu whilst pregnant, the virus could lay dormant in the baby's brain until activated
by other hormones.
Biochemistry- the availability of E.g. an excess of dopamine is found in people with schizophrenia.
certain neurotransmitters E.g. a lack of serotonin is found in people with depression
Genes- evidence from twin Kendler et al- found relatives of schizophrenics are 18 times more likely to develop a
studies mental illness. Gurling et al- found evidence that certain chromosomes are linked to
schizophrenia and are passed on genetically.
Scientist treat abnormality like a
physical disease, patients require Evaluation of approach A02
treatment to cure and prevent
the disease. Humane: it implies the patient is not to blame for their
Effective treatments: Kirsch et al reviewed 38 studies of
Methods of investigation: antidepressants and found patients receiving placebos fared
Family studies, MZ and DZ twin studies as well as those getting real drugs.
and adoption studies to determine Physiological evidence: brain scans and post mortems
concordance rate of a relative developing
Cause and effect: correlation studies provide a comparison of
a disorder to determine whether there is a frequencies but not cause and effect
genetic link
Treat the symptoms not cause: may reoccur after treatment…read more

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Drug therapies (chemotherapy) Procedure: patient receives anaesthetic and muscle
relaxant drug before treatment to prevent fractures
Anti- anxiety drugs: benzodiazepines and beta blockers occurring from extreme muscle contraction. Oxygen
(refer to stress PowerPoint) may be given to patient to aid breathing. An electrode
Anti- depressant drugs: reduce the rate of absorption or by is placed on the temple on the dominant side of the
blocking the enzyme which breaks down brain and a second on the middle of the forehead. A
neurotransmitters, this increases the amount of small current of 0.6 amps is passed through the brain
neurotransmitters available to excite neighbouring cells. for half a second. The current produces a seizure last
up to a minute affecting the entire brain, the body
Anti- psychotic drugs: combat positive symptoms of tremors. When the patient comes around they don't
schizophrenia by blocking the action of dopamine by remember anything about the procedure. It is done 3
binding to dopamine receptors. Atypical
antipsychotic drugs only temporarily bind to times a week. 3-15 treatments are required.
receptors then rapidly disassociate to allow normal Used to treat: suicidal, severely depressed, when drug
transmission. Side effects include involuntary mouth therapy didn't work. The national institute for clinical
and tongue movement. excellence suggests it should only be used in cases
where all other treatments have failed.
Strengths: Weaknesses:
· Addiction Weaknesses:
· The world health organisation · Side effects- impaired memory,
reported that relapses after one · Side headaches, cardiovascular changes.
year were highest (55%) when effects- Strengths: · DOH- reported that 30% of patients
schizophrenics were treated with aggression Appears to had permanent fear and anxiety
placebos, suggesting drugs do work. , memory · History of abuse- used as punishment
· Khan et al- followed 250 patients be effective or social control.
over 8 weeks, found that BZ's were loss · Mental health act- patient can make a
· Treating in 50% of capacious refusal against the
significantly superior to placebos.
· Hidalgo et al- meta analysis of social the patients. treatment and parents cannot override
anxiety studies and found that BZ's symptoms the decision of a 16+ year old.
were more effective than not the · Slackhiem et al- 60% of patients
antidepressants. become depressed again within a year.
cause.…read more

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