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Self-actualisation: refers to our motivation to achieve our full potential as individuals

Autonomy: ability to function as an independent person, taking responsibility for one's own actions

Empathy: ability to put yourself in another's shoes and seeing the world from their point of view. It is
thoughts to be a basic…

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Schizophrenia: hallucinations (hearing voices) and delusions (e.g. paranoid delusions where they feel
persecuted by others). Some become inactive and show little in the way of behaviour or emotional
responsiveness. People can show a mix of these symptoms

OCD (Obsessive-compulsive disorder): obsessive thoughts constantly running through persons head.
Also have compulsive…

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o Labelling a person as schizophrenic is likely to stigmatise them. Society on the whole has little
understanding of mental illness and people tend to avoid those with serious disorders.

Stigmatise: to identify and treat people in a more negative way because of particular characteristics,
illnesses or psychological disorders.


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The brain is responsible for controlling complex behaviour, so in theory behaviour can be
related to changes in brain activity.
Assumptions of the biological approach

As all behaviour is associated with changes in brain function, psychopathology will be caused
by changes in either the structure or function of the brain…

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o Super-Ego: personal moral authority on conscience. It develops later in childhood
through identification with one or other parent. The child internalises the moral rules
and social norms of society.

Treatments ­ psychoanalysis `talking cure' ­ Free-association: the client and therapist talk
about the problems a person has and they…

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o Anal Stage: 18 months to 3 years, gratification focuses on the anus. Key activities
revolve around retaining the expelling faeces. For the first time the child can exert
some control over its environment. They can show obedience or disobedience by
expelling or retaining faeces. Fixation at this stage can…

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Met Issues: case study with no systematic and objective measures of signs of
`fear'. Relied on general verbal descriptions

Ethical Issues: scaring children and causing psychological harm. Did not
de-condition Albert, as his mother, with their knowledge removed him from
the research program.

Classical conditioning has been used to account…

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Very deterministic, viewing human behaviour as simply a product of stimuli, reward and
punishments. There is no role for conscious choice.

S ­ Systematic desensitisation

It can be treated by unlearning behaviour

The Cognitive approach

In relation to abnormality, the cognitive approach emphasis the role of cognitive processes (beliefs,

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Belief about what has happened ­ this can be rational (didn't prepare enough) or
irrational (I'm too stupid). This then leads to

Consequences ­ rational beliefs produce adaptive (appropriate) consequences
(more revision). Irrational beliefs produce maladaptive (bad an inappropriate)
consequences (depression).


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