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Self-actualisation: refers to our motivation to achieve our full potential as individuals
Autonomy: ability to function as an independent person, taking responsibility for one's own actions
Empathy: ability to put yourself in another's shoes and seeing the world from their point of view. It is
thoughts to be a basic requirement for social communication
Psychopathy: refers to an apparent lack of empathy and understanding of others.…read more

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Schizophrenia: hallucinations (hearing voices) and delusions (e.g. paranoid delusions where they feel
persecuted by others). Some become inactive and show little in the way of behaviour or emotional
responsiveness. People can show a mix of these symptoms
OCD (Obsessive-compulsive disorder): obsessive thoughts constantly running through persons head.
Also have compulsive behaviours, such as frequent hand washing.
Anti ­ psychiatry: movement associated with Szasz and Laing that rejected the medical model of
psychopathology. Proposed that people had `problems with living' rather than psychological
disorders.…read more

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Labelling a person as schizophrenic is likely to stigmatise them. Society on the whole has little
understanding of mental illness and people tend to avoid those with serious disorders.
Stigmatise: to identify and treat people in a more negative way because of particular characteristics,
illnesses or psychological disorders.…read more

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The brain is responsible for controlling complex behaviour, so in theory behaviour can be
related to changes in brain activity.
Assumptions of the biological approach
As all behaviour is associated with changes in brain function, psychopathology will be caused
by changes in either the structure or function of the brain
Development of the body and brain is heavily influenced by genetics, and biological
psychologists tend to assume that most behaviours involve a component inherited from the
biological parents.…read more

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Super-Ego: personal moral authority on conscience. It develops later in childhood
through identification with one or other parent. The child internalises the moral rules
and social norms of society.
Treatments ­ psychoanalysis `talking cure' ­ Free-association: the client and therapist talk
about the problems a person has and they try to deal with it
Defence Mechanism Description
Repression Threatening impulses are repressed into the
unconscious. The individual becomes unaware of
them.…read more

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Anal Stage: 18 months to 3 years, gratification focuses on the anus. Key activities
revolve around retaining the expelling faeces. For the first time the child can exert
some control over its environment. They can show obedience or disobedience by
expelling or retaining faeces. Fixation at this stage can lead to an obsession with
hygiene and cleanliness, and perhaps OCD.
o Phallic Stage: until age 4/5, where the focus is on the genitals and gratification
comes through genital stimulation.…read more

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Met Issues: case study with no systematic and objective measures of signs of
`fear'. Relied on general verbal descriptions
Ethical Issues: scaring children and causing psychological harm. Did not
de-condition Albert, as his mother, with their knowledge removed him from
the research program.
Classical conditioning has been used to account for the development of phobias. These are
characterised as extreme fear of certain objects or situations.…read more

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Very deterministic, viewing human behaviour as simply a product of stimuli, reward and
punishments. There is no role for conscious choice.
S ­ Systematic desensitisation
It can be treated by unlearning behaviour
The Cognitive approach
In relation to abnormality, the cognitive approach emphasis the role of cognitive processes (beliefs,
thoughts, and perceptions) in causing psychological disorders.
They developed the cognitive approach to abnormality as a combination of behaviourism (the role of
conditioning principles in changing behaviour) and cognitive models of psychopathology.…read more

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Belief about what has happened ­ this can be rational (didn't prepare enough) or
irrational (I'm too stupid). This then leads to
Consequences ­ rational beliefs produce adaptive (appropriate) consequences
(more revision). Irrational beliefs produce maladaptive (bad an inappropriate)
consequences (depression).…read more


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