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Definitions of Abnormality

Deviation from social norms: behaviour deviates from values of society,
violates the approved/acceptable/expected ways of behaving in a particular
society is considered to be abnormal


Limited by cultural relativism-social norms vary from culture to culture, within a culture there are
many sub-cultures that have different…

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Models of abnormality:

Biological approach- abnormality caused by physical/biological problems, the closer the
genetic relatedness to an individual with an abnormality, increased likelihood of having
(MZ 48%, DZ 17%)-Biochemistry (imbalance of chemical messengers), Neuroanatomy (Brain
structure, large ventricles=schizophrenia), Infection (schizophrenia higher rate in mothers who had


Research based…

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Criticised for being environmentally deterministic-exaggerate importance of environmental factors
ignoring biological factors or fee will

Ethical implications-individual not blamed for their abnormality however some treatments considered
inhumane/painful e.g. flooding and aversion therapy

Cognitive approach to psychology-not events in lives causing abnormality but the way we
perceive/think about them, incorrect inferences…

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Evaluation for ECT:

Effectiveness of ECT- effective for severe depressed , immediate beneficial effect and prevents
suicides , research shown significant benefit of ECT over a placebo and drug therapy

Side effects- impaired memory, headaches, cardiovascular problems and some anxious/fearful and
possible permanent memory impairment research found 30% within last…

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developed by Albert Ellis, involves 3 steps analysing way they have developed irrational thoughts
through `ABC' technique


Effective treatment-deals with cause not symptoms

Short term and cost effective- cheaper than other therapies as only short term

Not suitable for everyone- requires commitment as homework tasks set between sessions


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