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Protons, Neutrons and Electrons
-Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus
-Electrons orbit the nucleus in shells
Particle Relative Mass Relative Charge
Proton 1.0 1+
Neutron 1.0 0
Electron 1/2000 1-…read more

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Isotopes
· Isotopes are atoms of the same element with
different numbers of neutrons.
· Isotopes of the same element have:
· Different masses
· The same number of electrons and protons.
· Different numbers of neutrons in the nucleus.
Isotopes of Carbon: Isotope 126C 13
6
C 14
6
C
Mass 12 13 14
Number
Atomic 6 6 6
Number
Number of 6 7 8
netrons…read more

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Ions
· An ion is a positively or negatively charged
atom or (covalently bonded) group of atoms
(a molecular ion)
23
Ion 11
Na+ 35
17
Cl -
Atomic Number 11 17
Mass Number 23 35
Protons 11 17
Neutrons 12 18
Electrons 10 18
Overall Charge 11-10 = 1+ 17-18 = 1-…read more

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Atomic Masses
· Relative Isotopic mass: is the mass of an atom
of an isotope compared with one-twelfth of
the mass of an atom of carbon-12.
· For Oxygen ­ 16, the relative isotopic mass
= 16.0
· For Sodium-23, the relative isotopic mass
= 23.0…read more

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Relative Atomic Mass
· Relative atomic mass is the weighted mean
mass of an atom of an element compared
with one-twelfth of the mass of an atom of
carbon-12.
· E.g. A sample of bromine contains 53.00%
bromine-79 and 47.00% bromine-81
Relative atomic mass = (53.00/100 x 79.00) +
47.00/100 x 81) = 79.94…read more

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