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· Complex: A metal ion surrounded by
· Ligand: an electron pair donor i.e. a
molecule or ion joined onto the metal ion
by a dative covalent bond to the metal.
· Coordination number: The number of
atoms directly joined to a transition metal
by a coordinate (dative covalent) bond.…read more

Slide 3

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Typical ligands
· Unidentate H2O: :NH3 :Cl-
· Bidentate C2O42- H2NCH2CH2NH2
· Multidentate EDTA4-
· Watch out for the chelate effect.…read more

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· Six-coordinate complexes are octahedral.
eg Cu(H2O)62+ Co(NH3)63+
· Four-coordinate complexes are usually
tetrahedral eg CoCl42- but a few are
square planar eg Ni(CN)42-.
· Two-coordinate complexes are linear eg
AgCl2-.…read more

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· Most transition metal colours are due to
d-d electron transitions. The energy gap
between the split d-orbitals corresponds to
visible light (E=hf).
· Some of the really strong colours are due
to charge transfer (such as in MnO4-).…read more

Slide 6

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Changing colour
· Anything that changes the energy
difference between the d-orbitals causes a
change in colour:
· Oxidation state
· Ligand
· Coordination number…read more

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