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CHAPTER 7
VARIATION
· Investigating Variation
· Types of Variation…read more

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INVESTIGATING VARIATION
· Interspecific variation- variation BETWEEN species
· Intraspecific variation- variation WITHIN a species
Sampling can be un-representative because
· There may be sampling bias (deliberate or unwittingly)
eg. Choosing an area in a field with lots of buttercups to
count, rather than taking a random area in a field.
· There is still a chance that the sample may be un-
representative
Samples can be made more representative by
· Using a larger sample size
· Doing statistical tests on the data collected eg. Standard
deviation…read more

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INVESTIGATING VARIATION
Causes of variation
· Mutations (sudden changes to genes and
chromosomes)
· Meiosis (genetic material is `mixed' before it is
passed on to the gametes)
· Fusion of gametes (variation depends on the which
two gametes fuse. There are thousands of sperm,
but only one normally fuses with the egg.
· Environmental influences eg, buttercups will grow
at different rates depending on the conditions…read more

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TYPES OF VARIATION
· Environmental eg. Height and mass
· Genetic eg. Blood type and eye colour
· Mean provides the average value for a set of
data
· Standard deviation shows the spread of data
about the mean. 68% of all measurements lie
within this range
Calculating standard deviation:…read more

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CHAPTER 8
DNA AND MEIOSIS
· Structure of DNA
· The triplet code
· DNA and chromosomes
· Meiosis and genetic variation…read more

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