A* Learn All B6,C6,P6

What you need to know (from the specification)

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B6 Brain and Mind
B6.1 How do organisms respond to changes in their environment?
1. recall that a stimulus is a change in the environment of an organism;
2. understand that animals respond to stimuli in order to keep themselves in favourable conditions;
3. understand that the central nervous system (CNS) coordinates an animal's responses via: a.
sensory neurons carrying impulses from receptors to the CNS; b. motor neurons carrying impulses
from the CNS to effectors;
4. understand that receptors and effectors can form part of complex organs, for example: a. light
receptor cells in the retina of the eye; b. hormone secreting cells in a gland; c. muscle cells in a
5. recall that in the mammalian nervous system the CNS (brain and spinal cord) is connected to the
body via the peripheral nervous system (sensory and motor neurons).
B6.2 How is information passed through the nervous system?
1. recall that neurons transmit electrical impulses when stimulated;
2. recall that in motor neurons the cytoplasm forms a long fibre surrounded by a cell membrane called
an axon;
3. understand that some axons are surrounded by a fatty sheath, which insulates the neuron from
neighbouring cells and increases the speed of transmission of a nerve impulse;
4. recall that there are gaps between adjacent neurons called synapses;
5. understand that at the end of a sensory neuron an impulse triggers the release of chemicals into
the synapse, which diffuse across and bind to receptor molecules on the membrane of a motor
6. understand that the receptor molecules only bind to specific chemicals, initiating a nerve impulse
in the motor neuron.
B6.3 What are reflex actions?
1. recall that simple reflexes produce rapid involuntary responses;
2. understand the nervous pathway of a reflex arc;
3. understand that simple reflexes ensure that an animal will respond to a stimulus in a way that is
most likely to result in its survival, to include finding food, sheltering from predators, and finding a
4. understand that simple animals rely on reflex actions for the majority of their behaviour;

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Pavlov's dogs (conditioned reflex action);
8. understand that in a conditioned reflex the final response has no direct connection to the stimulus;
9. understand that some conditioned reflexes increase the animal's chances of survival, e.g. rejection
by birds of caterpillars with particular colouring;
10. recall that in some circumstances the brain can modify a reflex response via a neuron to the
motor neuron of the reflex arc, to include keeping hold of a hot dinner plate.
B6.4 How do humans develop more complex behaviour?
1.…read more

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B6.6 How do drugs affect our nervous systems?
1. recall that some drugs and toxins affect the transmission of impulses across synapses;
2. understand that Ecstasy (MDMA) blocks the sites in the brain's synapses where the chemical
serotonin is removed;
3. understand that the mood-enhancing effects of Ecstasy are due to the subsequent increase in
serotonin concentration.
C6 Chemical Synthesis
C6.1 Chemicals and why we need them
1. understand the importance of chemical synthesis to provide food additives, fertilisers, dyestuffs,
paints, pigments and pharmaceuticals;
2.…read more

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H meters to measure pH;
11. recall the characteristic reactions of acids that produce salts to include the reactions with metals,
oxides, hydroxides and carbonates;
12. write balanced equations with state symbols to describe the characteristic reactions of acids;
13. recall that the reaction of acid with an alkali to form a salt is a neutralisation reaction;
14. balance unbalanced symbol equations;
15. explain that acidic compounds produce aqueous hydrogen ions, H+(aq), when they dissolve in
16.…read more

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L Making up of
standard solutions is not required.
11. substitute results in a given formula to interpret titration results quantitatively.
C6.2 Planning, carrying out and controlling chemical synthesis
12. understand why it is important to control the rate of a chemical synthesis (to include safety and
economic factors);
13. explain the term: `rate of chemical reaction';
14.…read more

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Hz) (metre, m) ; L Rearrangement of the equation is only expected
on the higher tier.
8. recall that the speed of a wave is usually independent of its frequency and amplitude.
P6.2 Why do scientists think that light and sound are waves?
1. draw and interpret diagrams showing the reflection of plane water waves and narrow beams of
sound or light from a plane reflector;
2.…read more

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X-rays, gamma radiation);
3 recall that the energy delivered by each photon in a beam of electromagnetic radiation increases
with the frequency of the electromagnetic waves;
4. understand that the intensity of a beam of electromagnetic radiation (the energy it delivers per
second) depends on the number of photons arriving every second and the amount of energy carried
by each photon;
5. know that all types of electromagnetic radiation travel at exactly the same, very high, speed
through space (a vacuum), 300,000km/s;
6.…read more

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The signal can therefore be cleaned up to remove the noise and restore
the original pattern of `on's and `off's;
15. be able to use these ideas to interpret information about analogue and digital transmission and
to explain why information can be transmitted digitally with higher quality.…read more


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