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B6 Brain and Mind
B6.1 How do organisms respond to changes in their environment?

1. recall that a stimulus is a change in the environment of an organism;

2. understand that animals respond to stimuli in order to keep themselves in favourable conditions;

3. understand that the central nervous system…

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5. understand that the disadvantage of this simple behaviour is that these animals have difficulty
responding to new situations;

6. recall examples of simple reflexes in humans, to include newborn reflexes, pupil reflex;

7. understand that a reflex response to a new stimulus can be learned by introducing a secondary…

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5. understand that humans are more likely to remember information if they can see a pattern in it (or
impose a pattern on it), if there is repetition of the information, especially over an extended period
of time, or if there is a strong stimulus associated with it, including colour,…

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10. recall the use of universal indicator and pH meters to measure pH;

11. recall the characteristic reactions of acids that produce salts to include the reactions with metals,
oxides, hydroxides and carbonates;

12. write balanced equations with state symbols to describe the characteristic reactions of acids;

13. recall that…

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10. describe how to carry out an acid-alkali titration accurately (solid sample weighed out into a
titration flask, dissolved in water and then titrated with acid or alkali from a burette); L Making up of
standard solutions is not required.

11. substitute results in a given formula to interpret titration…

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7. use the equation:

wave speed = frequency x wavelength

(metre per second m/s) (hertz, Hz) (metre, m) ; L Rearrangement of the equation is only expected
on the higher tier.

8. recall that the speed of a wave is usually independent of its frequency and amplitude.

P6.2 Why do…

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1. recall that the different colours of light in the spectrum have different frequencies (and therefore

2. list the parts of the whole electromagnetic spectrum in order of frequency or wavelength (radio
waves, microwave, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet , X-rays, gamma radiation);

3 recall that the energy delivered by…

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7. recall that, in digital transmission, the sound is often converted into a digital code made up from
just two symbols (0 and 1);

8. recall that this coded information can be used to control the short bursts of waves (pulses)
produced by a source (0 = no pulse,…


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