A* Learn All B5,C5,P5

What you need to know (from the specification)

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  • Created on: 08-06-11 16:45
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MODULE B5: GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
B5.1 How does an organism produce new cells?
1. recall that DNA has a double helix structure;
2. understand that cell division by mitosis produces two new cells identical to each other and to the parent cell;
3. describe the main processes of the cell cycle:
a. cell growth during which:
· numbers of organelles increase;
· the chromosomes are copied when the two strands of each DNA molecule separate and new strands form
alongside them;
b. mitosis during which:
· copies of the chromosomes separate;
· the cell divides;
L Candidates are not expected to recall intermediate stages of mitosis.
4 recall that meiosis is a type of cell division that produces gametes;
5 understand why, in meiosis, it is important that the cells produced only contain half the chromosome number of the
parent cell;
6 understand that a zygote contains a set of chromosomes from each parent.
L Candidates are not expected to recall intermediate stages of meiosis.
B5.2 How do genes control growth and development within the cell?
1. recall that the genetic code is in the cell nucleus but proteins are produced in the cell cytoplasm;
2. understand that genes do not leave the nucleus but a copy of the gene is produced to carry the genetic code to
the cytoplasm;
3. recall that both strands of the DNA molecule are made up of four different bases, which always pair up in the same
way;
4. explain how the order of bases in a gene is the code for building up amino acids in the correct order to make a
particular protein.
L Candidates are not expected to recall details of nucleotide structure,
B5.3 How do new organisms develop from a single cell?
1. recall that the zygote divides by mitosis to form an embryo;

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MODULE C5: CHEMICALS OF THE NATURAL
ENVIRONMENT
C5.1 What types of chemicals make up the atmosphere and hydrosphere?
1. recall that dry air consists of gases, some of which are elements (for example, oxygen, nitrogen and argon) and
some compounds (for example, carbon dioxide);
2. recall the symbols for the atoms and molecules of these gases in the air;
3. recall that most non-metal elements and most compounds between non-metal elements are molecular;
4.…read more

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C5.2 What types of chemicals make up the Earth's lithosphere?
1. recall that the Earth's lithosphere (the rigid outer layer of Earth made up of the crust and the part of the mantle
just below it) is made up of a mixture of minerals;
2. recall that silicon, oxygen and aluminium are very abundant elements in the crust;
3. be able to interpret data about the abundances of elements in rocks;
4.…read more

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Periodic Table to obtain the relative atomic masses of elements;
9. be able to calculate the mass of the metal that can be extracted from a mineral given its formula or an equation;
10. describe electrolysis as the decomposition of an electrolyte with an electric current;
11. understand that electrolytes include molten ionic compounds;
12. describe what happens to the ions when an ionic crystal melts;
13. recall that, during electrolysis, metals form at the negative electrode and non-metals form at the positive
electrode;
14.…read more

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MODULE P5: ELECTRIC CIRCUITS
P5.1 Electric current - a flow of what?
1. explain that when two objects are rubbed together and become charged, electrons are transferred from one
object to the other;
2. recall that there are repulsive forces between objects with similar charges, and attractive forces between objects
with opposite charges;
3. explain simple electrostatic effects in terms of attraction and repulsion between charges;
4. recall that electrons are negatively charged;
5. recall that electric current is a flow of charge;
6.…read more

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LDR, fixed and variable
resistor, thermistor, ammeter and voltmeter;
10. explain that two (or more) resistors in series have more resistance than one on its own, because the battery has
to push charges through both of them;
11. explain that two (or more) resistors in parallel provide more paths for charges to flow along than one resistor on its
own, so the total resistance is less and the current is bigger;
12.…read more

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P5.4 How is mains electricity produced?
Candidates will be assessed on their ability to:
1. recall that mains electricity is produced by generators;
2. recall that generators produce a voltage by a process called electromagnetic induction;
3. recall that when a magnet is moving into a coil of wire a voltage is induced across the ends of the coil;
4. recognise that if the ends of the coil are connected to make a closed circuit, a current will flow round the circuit;
5.…read more

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W) is a measure of the rate at which an appliance or device transfers energy;
3. use the following equation to calculate energy transfer in joules and kilowatt-hours:
energy transferred = power x time
(joule, J) (watt, W) (second, s)
(kilowatt hour, kWh) (kilowatt, kW) (hour, h);
4. use the equation:
power = potential difference (voltage) × current
(watt, W) (volt, V) (ampere, A);
L Rearrangement of these equations is only expected on the higher tier.
5.…read more

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