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B5.1 How does an organism produce new cells?

1. recall that DNA has a double helix structure;

2. understand that cell division by mitosis produces two new cells identical to each other and to the parent cell;

3. describe the main processes of the cell…

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2. understand that in a human embryo, up to the eight cell stage, all the cells are identical and could produce any
sort of cell required by the organism (embryonic stem cells);

3. understand that after this point the cells become specialised and form different types of tissue;

4. understand…

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C5.1 What types of chemicals make up the atmosphere and hydrosphere?

1. recall that dry air consists of gases, some of which are elements (for example, oxygen, nitrogen and argon) and
some compounds (for example, carbon dioxide);

2. recall the symbols for the…

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17. be able to work out the formulae for salts in the sea given a table of charges on ions (for example, sodium
chloride, magnesium chloride, magnesium sulfate, potassium chloride and potassium bromide).

C5.2 What types of chemicals make up the Earth's lithosphere?

1. recall that the Earth's lithosphere (the…

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5. understand that some metals are so reactive that their oxides cannot be

reduced by carbon;

6. be able to balance unbalanced symbol equations;

7. recall and use state symbols: (s), (l), (g) and (aq) in equations;

8. be able to use the Periodic Table to obtain the relative atomic…

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P5.1 Electric current - a flow of what?

1. explain that when two objects are rubbed together and become charged, electrons are transferred from one
object to the other;

2. recall that there are repulsive forces between objects with similar charges, and attractive forces between objects…

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9. recognise and use the electrical symbols for a cell, power supply, filament lamp, switch, LDR, fixed and variable
resistor, thermistor, ammeter and voltmeter;

10. explain that two (or more) resistors in series have more resistance than one on its own, because the battery has
to push charges through both…

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d. the current is smallest through the component with the largest resistance, because the same battery voltage
causes more current to flow through a smaller resistance than a bigger one.

P5.4 How is mains electricity produced?

Candidates will be assessed on their ability to:

1. recall that mains electricity is…

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1. explain that when electric charge flows through a component (or device), energy is transferred to the component;

2. recall that power (in watts, W) is a measure of the rate at which an appliance or device transfers energy;

3. use the following equation to calculate energy transfer in joules…


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