(A3) Lenin/Stalin's Communist Russia Revision Sheet

A3 Revision Notes with key dates, terminology and mnenomics for revision for the Communist Russia section of the Totalitarian Ideologies in Theory and Practice Course.

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Russia 1916 to 1940 1848 ­ Karl Marx writes the `Communist Policies Included:
Key People: Vladimir Lenin (1917 > 1924), Joseph Stalin (1924 +) Manifesto' ­ a list of ideas for the future outlining The Power Struggle Religious
Everyone is equal
a `Communist Utopia,' should the Communists ever
Regime: Communism (Everyone is equal) get to power. Communism is an
After Lenin's political testament in 1923, where he stated he didn't want Stalin to gain Lenin was actively opposed to religion. As
international movement power, and Lenin's death in 2924 ­ Stalin took a number of actions to consolidate power. capitalism had been skipped, he saw the removal
No class system of religion to be an urgent matter.
No government th
Trotsky is sacked as War Commissar in 1925, and at the 14 Party Congress in the same
year Zinoviev and Kamenev are outvoted by the `rights' and Stalin. First attacks on Churches in 1918
Leaders of the Orthodox Church were murdered
United Opposition (Trotsky, Zinoviev and Kamenev) formed in 1926 ­ Trotsky and others brutally.
The Cheka were ordered to shoot people who
Russia in the 1910s hold protest meetings, considered factionalist. They are expelled in 1927.
missed work because they were observing
Bukharin is politically attacked in 1928, and then removed from party in 1929. religious holidays.
By 1916, many Russians believed that a revolution was
the only solution to their problems: In 1922, 80,000 Orthodox Churches were
relinquished of their gold, silver and jewels.
In the Long Term, Peasantry was rife (80% of the Ancient books and bibles were burnt.
population), the tsarist government was autocratic and Limits to Diversity
the aristocracy still ruled. In 1929 it was made illegal to engage with
In a totalitarian state, no difference between individuals can be accepted because it acts as
religious activity outside churches.
In the Short Term, there were strikes in industry, the First a threat to the power.
World War had disastrous effects on Russia and Food Economically, the policies introduced helped to limit diversity and made sure that The League of the Godless had a 1 million
Production fell. peasantry were controlled on the basis of jobs and finance. Jobs were selected for people member strong membership in 1929
and pay was fixed by the business owners. With trade unions banned, there was no way
So there were 2 revolutions in 1917 ­ in February, the the workers could form relationships with their bosses which would undermine the state.
Tsar was abdicated and killed to prevent a Kulaks (Rich peasants) that had grown wealth from the NEP were deported to Siberia in
redevelopment of aristocratic rule and a provisional 1929. Some historians believe the term was applied to anyone who opposed
government was set up made of different political collectivisation.
parties. The Bolshevik revolution took place in October,
when they stormed the Winter Palace. The economic policies are explored below.
Factors for Stalin's Rise to Social and Cultural
Civil War of Russia 1918-1921 Lenin banned Power?
factionalism For children, the future of Russia, Stalin wanted to educate
Battle of the Bolsheviks and the Mensheviks. Both parties were in the form of
Communist but had different approaches. GOLD DIGR them to follow procedure. In 1930, school education was
`The Decree made compulsory and by 1941, there were 35 million
on Party General Secretary
Mensheviks wanted Russia to wait and prepare for a time to move Controlled communications, the ability to expel children in schools.
Unity' in
to Communism naturally ­ Russia had to progress through a stage 1921. As well `unsatisfactory' party members, Lenin's mouthpiece.
Outside of school, youth aged 8-23 were expected to join
of Capitalism. It had mass open membership and allied with other as this, he Opportunism
partied and trade unions. organisations that taught them how to be a good
intimidated Appeared as Lenin's successor making a speech at his
communist and made these appealing by filling them with
potential funeral, telling Trotsky the wrong date for the
The Bolsheviks felt Russia was ready for a revolution. The party physical and outdoor activity.
opponents funeral, switching ideology.
was made up of `Revolutionary Elites' and the control lied in the Pioneers for under 14s and Komosomol for 14-28s
and censored Lenin Legacy
hands of the `Central committee' ­ they did not work with other newspapers Lenin Enrolment ­ campaign of 1924 to bring In the media, the Pravda and Izvestiya were responsible for
parties and banned trade unions.
100,000 workers into the party, increased spreading the party message.
Economic Policies membership from 500,000 to 1m in 2 years. Lenin
the deity figure. For women, the "1936 Constitution" developed by
War Communism (1918-1921) Death of Lenin Bukharin, guaranteed their social and political rights and
The New Economic Policy (1921-1928) Lenin no longer controlled the party, Stalin took making them feel as if they were the most liberated
A series of Emergency measures introduced by Lenin in 1918 to control by preventing Lenin's Political Testament women in the world. Yet the women's section of the party
combat Russia's economic problems and to feed the soldiers of Introduced at the Tenth Party Congress to address issues with War Communism. In being read publically. had been closed in 1930 and in 1936 abortion was made
the First World War. the Kronstadt Uprising of 1921, 160,000 Kronstadt soldiers called to an end to the Diffidence of Trotsky illegal except on medical grounds. Mothers of 5 or more
"lack of democracy" and to War Communism, 150,000 expelled by Bolsheviks. "Disinterested" in power. Trotsky supporters had children were awarded the `Medal of Motherhood.' Birth
1 Production and Private Ownership held by the state been removed by Stalin. rates did not increase as intended.
There was a settlement of 10% of all farming production. Collected by requisition Ideological Differences of Bukharin
2 State-controlled labour of every individual groups. Surplus grain could be sold for individual profit, so it was slightly capitalist. By Homosexuality was made illegal in 1934
Believed in the NEP, which was slightly capitalist.
1923, grain production had increased by half.
Extreme Centralisation ­ responsibility of different Stalin labelled him as capitalist to consolidate power.
3 Grave Mistakes of Zinoviev and Kamenev
areas of society passed onto different organisations. In 1929, rationing had been introduced into cities. Strikes and Trade Unions banned
(E.g ­ The Supreme Economic Council controlled 1924, agreed not to release Lenin's Political
industry, there were 40 departments set up.)
to control the workers.
Testament, formed the United Opposition with The Cult of Stalin
Trotsky too late.
The state was the main food producer and Ruthlessness Stalin labelled himself as `Vozhd', or "The Boss" and becoming synonymous with "leader" (pushed by the Pravda n 1929
4 as a nationally recognised name ­ Lenin rejected any hero worship but Stalin encouraged it. It is argued by his daughter
distributor. 0% of all food consumed came from Exiled people of power and adapted his ideology to
illegal sources. In July, 1918, the Bolsheviks decided The Five, Five Year Plans (From 1928 to 1955) gain public support. Misused power as General
that he didn't appreciate the label as much as is believed. He was recognised in the same way as Kirov as it was easier to
that all surplus food had to be surrendered to the Secretary. follow an individual than a set of beliefs.
state. Used the policy of `collectivisation' to collate farms and workers together ­ making it
In the December 1929 edition of the Pravda, dedicated to Stalin, poems, articl es and letters praised him as the `Lenin of
easier to collect grain.
A natural economy of kindness instead of money Today.'
meant the value of the rouble greatly decreased in The Plans were a set of targets made for industrial production ­ providing `direction'
1921 and by 1923 it was worthless. He was considered `all-seeing,' `all -knowing" and "all -powerful"
but not `instruction' on how to get there. Production continued to grow (11.7 tonnes
of oil to 21.4 tonnes)
As a result of public rebellion, a great famine occurred and There was a psychological need for a leader. Tsars had been previously known as `little fathers'
many peasants died. 6 million peasants, 5 million from Ukraine, He benefitted from the Cult of Lenin, appearing as is successor.
The State Planning Commission, or Gosplan, set targets for production and produced
died from starvation). statistics to illustrate the country's growth. A general growth of the cult encouraged people to join out of popularity.
Huge statues and propaganda in public and speeches raised public awareness.


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