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Py3 research methods

Hypothesis must contain
1. independent variable
2. dependant variable
3. the word SIGNIFICANT

Directional hypothesis is when you state there will be a change and specify
who/what will be effected by the change
Non directional stating that there will be a difference but not specifying who/what will…

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Biased analysis Use other researchers to analyse
Sampling techniques
Random every member of the target population has a equal chance of selection.
Strengths representative
Weakness very difficult to be truly random

Snowball used when the target population is hard to obtain (drug addicts), it is when a
researcher asks a…

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Informed consent Explaining to participant the Get agreement in writing
details of the study Presumptive consent

mean all scores added divided by the number of scores
advantages takes all scores into account
disadvantage misleading I there are anomalous results

median the middle value when all values are placed in…

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Statistical tests
Statistical test When it is used

Chi squared NOMINAL data
Sign test NOMINAL data
REPEATED measures
Mann whitney ORDINAL / INTERVAL / RATIO data
REPEATED measures

Significance of statistical tests

If there is…

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PY3 issues in research
Advantages of the scientific method

the scientific method involves:
1. identifying research
2. formulating a hypothesis
3. design a experiment
4. perform experiment
5. evaluate hypothesis
6. communicate result

quantitative data is data with numbers
strength high control, shows relationships
weakness dehumanising

qualitative data questionnaires etc.…

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5. the scientific method raises ethical issues cost/benefit analysis, example:
milgram justified his study saying the results gained exceeded the harm.
Baumrind disagreed saying it was unjustifiable.

Thomas kuhn says that the scientific approach is currently dominating psychology,
but there will most likely be a paradigm shift where we lose…

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Debriefing participants are told the true aims and any concerns are taken care of.

Presumptive consent asking similar people if they would consent to taking part.

Ethical committee a group of people that look at the ethical issues of a study and
suggests improvements.

Guidelines BPS guidelines

Punishment Humphreys tea…

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There has been many important benefits of animal research including: classical conditioning
used to treat problems like smoking and alcoholism. Guide dogs are trained by operant
conditioning. Medical treatments such as anaesthetics, anti epilepsy and anti cancer
medication would not of been developed without animal research.

Some critics argue there…

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1. the central route a reasoned argument is presented for conscious
2. the peripheral route unethical methods are used to influence the buyer

exploiting behavioural tendencies:
some agencies collect buying behaviour of customers and use this to target advertisements at
the buyer, or sell them on. This can be…

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key points are:

informed consent psychologists should ensure any tv programme participants are aware
of losing their privacy and control. (more important for children)

Manipulation psychologists are reminded of their duty to protect participants from any
physical or mental harm. Psychologists should not lie to participants or withhold information.



L Wheeler


Not awful, but not brilliant - there's some good stuff, but spelling and grammar is awful - a good enough starting point, but it needs a lot of editing (simple spell-check stuff) before it can be printed off and used, and the level of intellect displayed in it won't get you a pass grade, not on a board as strict as WJEC. But it isn't atrocious, you just need to improve it.



I personally found this very useful!:-)

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