A2 WJEC PY3 research methods + issues in research notes

pretty much everything that is needed for the PY3 exam. concise notes and tables.

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  • Created on: 15-01-12 15:03
Preview of A2 WJEC PY3 research methods + issues in research notes

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Py3 research methods
Hypothesis must contain
1. independent variable
2. dependant variable
3. the word SIGNIFICANT
Directional hypothesis is when you state there will be a change and specify
who/what will be effected by the change
Non directional stating that there will be a difference but not specifying who/what will
be effected by the change
A hypothesis needs to be operationalised this means stating how the change will be
measured
A null hypothesis predicts there will be no change
Experimental design
Independent measures two or more groups only undergo 1 condition
Strengths: no order, practice or fatigue effects
Weaknesses: individual differences
Repeated measures participants take part in all the conditions
Strengths: no individual differences
Weaknesses: order, practice and fatigue effects. Participants could display demand
characteristics.
Matched pairs participants are matched by similar variables
Strengths: no individual differences or order effects
Disadvantages: time consuming, expensive and more participants are needed
A cofounding variable is a variable that is not the intended variable but effects the
dependent variable.
How to control extraneous or cofounding variables
variable How to eliminate it
Demand characteristics Single or double blind study
Experimenter effects Standardise the procedure
Social desirability bias Ensure confidentiality
Order effects Counterbalancing (half + half)
Observing behaviour Run a pilot study
Lack of reliability Inter rater reliability
Effects of observation Covert observations
Leading questions Avoid leading questions/ run pilot study

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Biased analysis Use other researchers to analyse
Sampling techniques
Random every member of the target population has a equal chance of selection.…read more

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Informed consent Explaining to participant the Get agreement in writing
details of the study Presumptive consent
Statistics
mean all scores added divided by the number of scores
advantages takes all scores into account
disadvantage misleading I there are anomalous results
median the middle value when all values are placed in order
advantage more useful when there are extreme values
disadvantages distorted by small samples
mode most frequent value
advantage not influenced by extreme data
disadvantage not useful if there are many modes
range difference between…read more

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Statistical tests
Statistical test When it is used
Chi squared NOMINAL data
INDEPENDENT measures
Sign test NOMINAL data
REPEATED measures
Mann whitney ORDINAL / INTERVAL / RATIO data
INDEPENDENT measures
Wilcoxen SRT ORDINAL / INTERVAL / RATIO data
REPEATED measures
Spearmans RHO CORRELATIONS
Significance of statistical tests
If there is a R in the name, the value should be GREATER than the critical
value
If there is no R it should be lower than the critical value
Chi squared/ wilcoxen srt/ spearmans RHO = greater…read more

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PY3 issues in research
Advantages of the scientific method
the scientific method involves:
1. identifying research
2. formulating a hypothesis
3. design a experiment
4. perform experiment
5. evaluate hypothesis
6. communicate result
quantitative data is data with numbers
strength high control, shows relationships
weakness dehumanising
qualitative data questionnaires etc.
strength multiple interpretations can be gained
weakness relativist methods aren't rigorous
advantages
1. scientific method is empirical data gained is through direct
observation/experiment, example: drug tests
2.…read more

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Baumrind disagreed saying it was unjustifiable.
Thomas kuhn says that the scientific approach is currently dominating psychology,
but there will most likely be a paradigm shift where we lose favour of the scientific
approach.
Experimenter bias
Rosenthal tested experiment bias using lab rats. Participants were split into two
groups. One group were given `smart' rats, the other had `dull' rats. The group that
had rats that were `clever' performed better. All the rats were the same.…read more

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Debriefing participants are told the true aims and any concerns are taken care of.
Presumptive consent asking similar people if they would consent to taking part.
Ethical committee a group of people that look at the ethical issues of a study and
suggests improvements.
Guidelines BPS guidelines
Punishment Humphreys tea room studys were highly unethical and as a result he
got struck off the list as a qualified psychologist.…read more

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There has been many important benefits of animal research including: classical conditioning
used to treat problems like smoking and alcoholism. Guide dogs are trained by operant
conditioning. Medical treatments such as anaesthetics, anti epilepsy and anti cancer
medication would not of been developed without animal research.…read more

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This can be perceived as invasion of privacy
exploiting the cognitive abilities of customers
providing free gifts is a way of making people feel obliged to buy things due to the norm of
reciprocation (returning the favour) gifts are offered with the expectation of purchasing the
product or making a donation. This is often used by charities, life insurance company's and
shops.…read more

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Manipulation psychologists are reminded of their duty to protect participants from any
physical or mental harm. Psychologists should not lie to participants or withhold information.
Duty of care as professionals psychologists have to ensure the participants are treated
with `high standards of consideration and respect'
Confidentiality psychologists should ensure confidentiality in any discussions that take
place.
Follow up involvement it is not appropriate for psychologists to become intimately
involved with participants and then withdraw when the show ends.…read more

Comments

L Wheeler

Not awful, but not brilliant - there's some good stuff, but spelling and grammar is awful - a good enough starting point, but it needs a lot of editing (simple spell-check stuff) before it can be printed off and used, and the level of intellect displayed in it won't get you a pass grade, not on a board as strict as WJEC. But it isn't atrocious, you just need to improve it.

Hannah

I personally found this very useful!:-)

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