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CRIME AND DEVIANCE
Crime: Doing activities that break the law and individuals are punished for the crime.

Deviance: Doing something that goes against society's norms and values. Deviant behaviour is behaviour that is not accepted by society.

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FUNCTIONALISTS

Functionalist view of Crime and Deviance: DURKHEIM

Crime is an important part of all healthy societies ­ because individuals are exposed to different influences ­ therefore individuals
are not committed to the same shared values and beliefs of society.

o CRIME IS FUNCTIONAL:

1. CHANGE: All societies need to…

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Durkheim suggests that crime strengthens solidarity: BUT people do not commit crime in order to strengthen
solidarity; lack of finding the actual reason for crime committed.

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MERTON'S STRAIN THEORY

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Strain theories suggest that the reason why individuals take part in deviant behaviour is; individuals are unable to achieve socially accepted
goals by legitimate means (honest earnings).

MERTON: Explains how deviance can result from:

THE CULTURE: There is a strong emphasis on success goals and weak emphasis on actually achieving…

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4. RETREATISM: Individuals that reject the goals and the legitimate means to achieve it = DROPOUTS i.e. drug
addicts and tramps.
5. REBELLION: Individual rejects the goals and means. They desire to create a new society, by revolution and
engaging in protests.




CRITICS:
Merton exaggerates the working class crime ­…

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This then means that the boys suffer from status frustration and turn to delinquency to gain their status within peer
groups
Alternative is: doing the reverse of the mainstream society by gaining a higher status from other members of
subcultural groups.



CLOWARD & OHLIN:

There was legitimate opportunity (passing exams…

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Argued that self concept of being deviance can increase deviant behaviour. If a person is shamed by the reaction of
others who know they have been in trouble with the police, they are likely to join a criminal group to escape from that
feeling.
Label of criminal is not easily…

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STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS
Structured interviews are like questionnaires; both involve asking people a fixed set of prepared questions, questions are closed-ended
with pre-coded answers.

PRACTICAL ISSUES:

ADVANTAGE: Quick and cheap to administer
ADVANTAGE: Inexpensive: as the interviewer only asks a set of questions and there are pre-coded answers
ADVANTAGE: Quantitative data…

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