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SubCultural Theories
Haralambos Page 356 02/02/04
Handbook Page 57

SubCulture = small culture within a culture. It is an explanation which says
certain groups hold different values to the rest of society.
Synoptic Link to Education = Willis Learning to Labour, counterschool
culture.

A.K. Cohen
Criticises Merton.
People who suffer…

Page 2

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{Cloward and Ohlin}
3 different sorts of subcultures:
1. Criminal organised crime provided opportunities for the
young. It exposes different values and introduces now role
models. Also a possible career in hierarchy of crime. Based on
money business. 'Utilitarian crime'
2. Conflict no opportunity structure for legitimate/illegitimate.
Area of high…

Page 3

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Search for excitement stimulation, i.e. gambling, drinking
etc... It is an escape from the boring factory work.
Focal concerns in the adult world become exaggerated in
adolescence.
Miller is talking about the whole of the working class having this
culture.
{Miller}
Criticism:
Notes that delinquency of juveniles has support of…

Page 4

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Victimised by crime therefore become fragmented and conflict
occurs.
Type of males adopted by role models are not hardworking fathers
but successful criminals therefore the cycle continues.
If you live in a high crime area, you don't report crime because you are
used to it therefore the crime rate is…

Page 5

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Conventional values are important and have an influence.
Techniques of Neutralisation excuses, why its ok to commit a
crime:
1. Denial of responsibility.
2. Denial of injury.
3. Denial that the act is wrong.
4. Condemnation of those who support the rules, i.e. attack on
police.
5. Appeal to higher…

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Only those on the margins of society are not 'locked in' by ideology of
finance and thus are able to provide some sort of resistance to
capitalism.
Single largest group offering their resistance is working class youth.
Resistance is expressed through working class youth subcultures.

Brake 1980
Their clothes and…

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