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Psychology ­ Section A ­ EXPERIMENTS

Null ­ There will be no significant difference in the DV between the IV1 and IV2
Alternate ­ There will be a significant difference in the DV between IV1 and IV2
Alternate (one tailed) ­ There will be a significant increase/decrease in the…

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Matched pairs ­ participants matched to another based on certain qualities that affect the study and then do an
independent measures design (each do the different conditions and are compared)

Strength Weakness
Control over participant variables Not all participant variables can be controlled for
Higher chance of demand characteristics More…

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Random sampling ­ Every member of the target population has an equal chance of being selected. (Out of a
hat or computer random number/name)

Strength Weakness
Unbiased Unethical
Inexpensive, quick and easy High chance of withdrawal
Extraneous variables

Participant variables ­ Characteristics of the participants that could affect the results.…

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Protection from harm


Analysing data

Means of central tendency:
-Mean: Add all together and divide by the number of variables
-Medium: Organize numbers in order and select the middle variable
-Mode: The most popular variable
-Range: The smallest to the largest numerical variable

Levels of…

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Inferential Tests (No, I, C, M,R,S, Will, Smith)

Nominal Ordinal/Interval/Ratio
Independent Chi-Square Test Mann Whitney-U Test
Measures -Test for a difference -Test for a difference
-Nominal -Ordinal/Interval/Ratio
-Independent Groups Design -Independent Groups Design
Repeated measures Sign Test Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test
Matched pairs -Test for a difference -Test for a…

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Split-Half Method tests whether a measure is high or low by splitting questionnaire in half and answering them
separately to give similar or the same results

External Reliability

The extent to which a test or procedure is consistent from one occasion to another on the same person
Eg, same results…

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Increase: Strong correlation

Face Validity

The measurement looks like it is measuring what it is supposed to
Affecters: Based on opinion, subjective and looking at the DV
Increase: Cannot because its due opinion

Affecters of validity

Demand characteristics = use deception, Independent measures or matched pairs and single blind technique…

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Psychology A2 ­ Approaches and research methods

Section A -

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