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Contents
Turning to crime

Upbringing
Disrupted Families ­ Farrington
Learning from others ­ Sutherland/Bandura
Poverty and Disadvantaged neighborhoods - Wikstrom
Cognition
Criminal thinking patterns ­ Yochelson and Samenow
Moral development ­ Kohlberg
Social cognition ­ Gudjohnson
Biology
Brain Dysfunction ­ Raine
Genes and Serotonin ­ Brunner et al.
Gender ­…

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Ear acupuncture for drug rehabilitation ­ Wheatley




UPBRINGING
Disrupted Families ­ Farrington:
Aim: to measure the start, duration and end of criminal behaviour/acts from childhood to adulthood
in families. To see whether there are integenerational transmition
Sample: 411 working class male from East London, who were mostly White.
Method: Longitudinal…

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Conclusion: Family's social position; individual characteristics; social situation' lifestyles and routine
activities and community contexts influence criminal behaviour.

Cognition

Criminal Thinking Patterns ­ Yochelson and Samenow
Aim: to understand the make-up of criminal personality;
to establish techniques that could be used to alter the personality disorders that produce crime;
to…

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about their criminal act and then cross-validate earlier findings on an English sample.
Sample: 80 criminals who were serving sentences in Northern Ireland. They were divided into groups.
First group of 20 Ps aged 29years had committed violent offences (homicide, bodily harm). The second
group of 40 Ps aged 41years…

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their aggression. However, this condition is very rare and even in this family, those who did suffer from
mental retardation, did not resort to violence.

Gender ­ Daly and Wilson
Aim: to find out if homicide rates would vary as a function of local life expectancy in Chicago.
Method: Correlational…

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Persuasion ­ Cutler et al.
Aim: to investigate whether hearing about psychological research from an expert witness would affect
a juror's decision making by making them more sceptical about such testimony.
Sample: 538 undergraduates who were given credits for their introductory psychology course.
Method: Laboratory experiment which involved using a…

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Results: Analysis of the ratings revealed that physically attractive defendants and victims were rated
positively on other personality variables as well. When the defendant was attractive, guilty verdicts
were found 56% of the time against 76% for an unattractive defendant. When the victim was
attractive, the guilty verdict followed 77%…

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again there was no difference between the conditions and the guilty verdicts towards the defendant
increased by a significant percentage.

Reaching a verdict

Stages in decision making ­ Hastie et al.

Orientation Relaxed and open discussion
period Set the agenda
Raise questions and explore facts
Different opinions arise

Open Fierce…

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deviant position, suggesting figure of $3000 in compensation instead of $10000 - $25000 which was
the view of the rest.
Results: The confederate experts influence when he is consistent and when he is perceived as
autonomous because he has chosen his seat, whereas when seated by the experimenter he has…

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- Racial bias ­ too black prisoners (48%)
- Drug offenders over represented
- Super max prisons
Part Two ­ Suggestions of changes that still need to be made:
- More resources
- Individual differences
- Psychological harm
- Violent prisoners more dangerous

Alternatives to Imprisonment

Probation ­ Mair and…

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