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Why some psychologists think that aggression
is an evolutionary response.…read more

Slide 2

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Daly and Wilson (1988) claim that men have evolved
different strategies to deter their partners from
committing adultery (infidelity).
· These strategies include vigilance and violence, but they'
re all fuelled by male jealousy- which developed to
counter the threat of paternal uncertainty.
· Paternal uncertainty is the name given to when a man
isn't sure if his female partners child is his or not. A
woman can be 100% sure that the child she carries is
hers, but if she has cheated on her partner with another
man, the child could be his. This is known as cuckoldry.
Infidelity and Jealousy…read more

Slide 3

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Buss (1988) suggested a number of strategies that males
use in order to keep their mate:
· Direct guard- vigilance, such as coming home
unexpectedly to see what the female partner is doing.
· Negative inducement- threats to prevent the female
partner from committing adultery.
Mate retention and violence…read more

Slide 4

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Uxorocide is the practice of wife killing. This is a method
of mate retention.
· Men usually keep their mate by conferring benefits or by
inflicting costs, such as violence. Not all men possess
resources to use as benefits, so they are more prone to
using violence, or threatening violence. (Shackelford et
al., 2000)
· Daly and Wilson (1988) suggest that uxorocide isn't a
method of mate retention, but it is actually an
unintentional outcome that was actually intended to
control them, not kill them.
Uxorocide…read more

Slide 5

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The majority of homicide killers and victims are men. There are 3 reasons why
people might commit homicide:
· Lack of resources - In a study of homicides in Detroit, 43% were male victims,
and 41% of the male perpetrators were unemployed, despite the fact that only
11% off men in Detroit were unemployed that year. 73% of the male victims and
69% of the male perpetrators were also unmarried.
This suggests that a lack of resources, and an inability to attract a long-term mate
increases the social competition, and male-male homicides.
· Loss of status ­ humans evolved as parts of small communities, where status is
important. Losing status would have catastrophic effects on males in these
communities- including lack of reproduction. They are no longer useful in todays
society, but these mechanisms continue to operate now. Homicide would be a
method of defending their status.
· Sexual Jealousy - This is a key motivator in same sex homicides. A summary of 8
same sex killings involving `love triangles' found that 92% were male-male
homicides, when only 8% were female-female.
Homicide murder.…read more

Slide 6

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Shackelford et al (2005) used a survey method to test predictions
concerning mate retention strategies. He used 461 men and 560
women in the US. All were in committed, heterosexual
relationships. Males were asked about their mate retention
techniques, were assessed on how often they used any of the 26
types of violent act against their partner. Women were asked about
their partners retention techniques, and the degree to which their
partner used violence against them.
Men's use of retention techniques were positively correlated with
their violence scores. Emotional manipulation also seemed to
predict their violence against their partners. Women's scores
backed up this trend, with reports of direct guarding and intersexual
negative inducements being positively correlated with their
experience of female-directed violence.
Research…read more

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A very helpful PowerPoint!

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