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As a political term, `feminism' was a 20th century invention and has only been a familiar part
of everyday language since the 1960s. In its modern usage, feminism is invariably linked to
the women's movement and the attempt to advance the social role of women.

Feminist ideology is defined…

Page 2

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Gender, like social class, race or religion, is a politically significant social cleavage.
Radical feminists argue gender is the deepest and most politically important of social
Feminists have therefore advanced a theory of `sexual politics', in much the same
way that socialists have preached the idea of `class politics'.…

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Patriarchal ideas blur the distinction between sex/gender, and assume all social
distinctions made between men and women are rooted in biology.
Feminists, in contrast, usually deny that there is a logical link between the two, and
emphasize gender differences are socially/politically constructed.
Human nature is thought of to be androgynous.…

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Feminism is a crosscutting ideology. The rival traditions of feminism have largely emerged
out of established ideologies and theories, most obviously liberalism and socialism, but also
more recently, ideas such as postmodernism and psychoanalysis. Such ideologies and
theories have served as vehicles for advancing the social role of women because…

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In contrast to their liberal counterparts, socialist feminists have not believed women
simply face political/legal disadvantages that can be remedied by equal rights or
Rather, they argue that the relationship between the sexes is rooted in the social
and economic structure itself, and that nothing short of profound social…

Page 6

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Gender is seen as the most important of all social divisions. Liberal and socialist ideas
had not seen gender as the most fundamental of all social divisions.
Second-wave feminists moved beyond the perspectives of existing political
ideologies, and the feminist movement sought to uncover the influence of patriarchy
not only…

Page 7

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Since 1970s, increasingly difficult to analyse feminism simply in terms of threefold
division into liberal, socialist and radicalist traditions.
New forms have emerged ­ `third-wave', `new feminism', `post feminism'.
`Third-wave' adopted since 1990s by young generation of feminists for whom
campaigns of 1960s/70s are of limited relevance to their own…

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Highlights the capacity of patriarchy to reproduce itself generation after generation,
in part by subordinating women through creating bogus forms of emancipation.


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