A2 OCR PE energy systems

Detailed noets on everything you need to know for the exam, with diagrams 

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  • Created by: Calum
  • Created on: 30-05-13 12:10
Preview of A2 OCR PE energy systems

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Concepts of Energy
There are three types of energy; these include kinetic, chemical and potential.
Kinetic Energy Energy in the form of muscular contraction/ joint
Chemical Energy Energy stored within the bonds of chemical compounds
Potential Energy `Stored' energy which is ready to be used when required.
Energy can be defined as: the ability to perform work/ put mass into motion.
Energy is measured in Joules (J).
Work is completed when a force is applied to a body to make it move a certain
distance. Work is also measured in Joules (J); It is expressed as:
FORCE is defined as: A push or pull that alters, or tends to alter, the state of
motion of a body. Force is measured in newtons (N).
Power is the rate at which work can be done It is measured in Watts (W); it is
expressed as:
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
ATP is a high energy phosphate compound made up of 1 molecule of
ADENOSINE and 3 PHOSPHATES. We have about 85g of ATP in our body, which
is enough to last 2 seconds. The bonds that hold the compound together are
the source of potential energy. When the third bond breaks in ATP energy is
released. This bond is broken by the enzyme ATPase.
This is an exothermic reaction! An exothermic reaction is a chemical reaction
which releases energy. The resynthesis of ADP to ATP is endothermic this is a
chemical reaction which requires energy to be used for its progression.
Energy System ­ ATP/PC system

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This energy system requires two reaction the bond breaking between PC
(phospho-creatine), this breaking of the bond creates energy, this energy is
used to resynthesis ADP + Pi to ATP. This is a coupled reaction because the
product of one reaction is used in another reaction.
Phospho-creatine is a high energy phosphate compound found in the cells. It
is a source of potential energy. The energy released by the breakdown of PC
is used to rebuild ATP.…read more

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This is further broken down in a series of reactions
called glycolysis. During glycolysis the enzyme phosphofructokinase initiates
the partial break down of glucose into pyruvic acid. 2 ATP is made at this
stage. Because there is no O2 then the pyruvic acid gets converted into lactic
acid via the enzyme lactate Dehydrogenase.
This reaction is slower and more complex than the ATP/PC system. It provides
energy for up to three minutes. It is an anaerobic reaction because it takes
place without O2.…read more

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Stage two is the Krebs cycle, occurs in the matrix of the mitochondria. It
creates 2 ATP. Four main events take place once the Acetyl CoA from stage 1
combines with Oxaloacetic acid, to form citric acid. These are
1. Co2 is produced and removed via respiration
2. Hydrogen atoms are removed
3. Energy is produced to resynthesis two molecules of ATP
4.…read more

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Effiecient ATP resynthesis More complex series of
when good O2 supply is reactions
given. Cannot resynthesis ATP at the
Large ATP resynthesis : 38 in start of exercise due to an
total initial delay of O2
Provides energy for Limited energy of ATP for
Low/moderate-intensity, to high intensity exercise.…read more


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