A2 OCR Biology: Industrial Enzymes

Biotechnology from the spread 2.2.7 in ocr textbook!

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Emily Summers
Wednesday 2nd March 2011
2.2.7 Biotechnology: Industrial Enzymes
Immobilisation Of
enzymes r
efers
to
any t
echni
que where enzy
me
mo l
ecul
es ar
e
held,
separat
ed f
ro m t
he
react
ion
mixtur
e.
S ubst
rat
e molecul
es
b i
nd t
o t
he
enzyme mo l
ecules
and
the
product
s formed
go back
to
the
react
ion
mixtur
e l
eaving
the
enzyme molecul
es i
n pl
ace.
Specificity of Enzymes Temperature of Enzyme Action
Enzymes can cat
a l
y se r
e act
ions
between Many enzymes f
uncti
on well
at
l
ow
s
p eci
f
ic
che mical
s e ven i
n
mixt
ures
of many t
emp er
atures,
compared wi
th ot
her
industr
ial
c
h emical
s.
S o
there are l
e ss
by
products enzymes and
processes.
So l
ess money
i
s
pr
oduced
and l
ess
p uri
fi
c at
ion
of
products
spent
on
energy cost
s,
and t
hermo phi
l
ic
necessar
y.
enzymes i
n bact
eri
a can
b e
extr
acted
for
t
hose pr
ocesses needi
n g
high
temperatures
t
o work.
I
t
can
be mor
e efficient
to
use i
solat
ed
e nzy
me s
for
r
eact
ions
rat
her t
ha n gr
owing
an ent
ir
e
or
gani
sm or
usi
n g
inorganic
catal
yst
s,
and i
sol
ated
enzy
me s c
a n
be syn t
hesi
ses
in
c
o mmerc
ial
bi
otec hn ol
ogical
pr
ocesses,
bydownstream processing.
Downstream Processing Extr
act
i
n g
the
enzy
me
fr
om t
he
fer
me nt
ati
on
mixtur
e:
a t
erm
used
to
descr
ibe
the
process
e s
i
nvol
ved i
n t
he
separ
ati
on
and
puri
f
icat
ion
of
any pr
oduct
of
l
arge
scal
e f
ermentat
ions
Immobilising Enzymes
For
product
s of
enzy
me
cont
rol
led reacti
ons
to
be synt
hesis
e d,
enzyme and
substr
ate
must
c
o l
l
ide and
for
m enzyme substrate complexes which
can happen when
yo u
mix
lar
ge
v
o l
ume s
of
the
substr
ate
and
is
o l
ated
enzyme wit
h t
he sui
tabl
e condi
ti
ons f
or
the
enzyme
to
work.
Aft
er t
his
, t
he
product
sy
n t
hesi
sed
must
be
ext
ract
ed
fr
om
the
mix
tur
e
whi
ch
can
be
expensi
ve.
You c
a n
immo bi
l
ise enzy
me s
so t
hey car
ry
on
c
a t
alysi
ng t
he enzyme cont
rol
led
react
ion
but
don'
t
fr
e el
y
mix wi
th subst
rat
e as
they
nor
ma l
ly
w oul
d i
n a
cell
,
or
isol
ated
syst
em...

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Emily Summers
but if the enzyme molecule But they're trapped in their Substrate molecules are
is held so the active site is But binding is very strong so natural state so active sites small enough to pass
unchanged and displayed, little leakage occurs are unchanged through the membrane and
high reaction rates are product molecules can bass
possible pack
http://infosys.cheric.org/ippage/e/ipdata/2004/05/file/e2004051101.…read more

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