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2.2.2 Artificial Clones and Agriculture
Taking Cuttings Grafting
Cut a section of stem between nodes, then Join a shoot section of a woody plant to a
treat the cut end of the stem with auxins to growing root and stem (rootstock), and the
encourage root growth, and plant. This will graft will grow genetically identical to the
form a new clonal plant of the original parent parent plant, although the rootstock will be
plant, producing fair amounts of plants is genetically different.
quick using this method. E.g. geraniums.
Large Scale Artificial Propagation Using Tissue Culture
Some plants do not reproduce well from cuttings or grafting, and those methods cannot
produce a large number of plants using plant tissue culture to create large quantities of
cloned plants from a small quantity of plant material is more useful. This can be used to
generate large reservoirs of valuable plants quickly, and they will be disease free.
Take a small piece of tissue from the plant that will be cloned. This is usually from
the shoot tip called the explant.
Place the explant in the nutrient growth medium.
The cells in the tissue will divide, but will not differentiate. They form a mass of
undifferentiated cells callus.
Single callus cells will be removed after a few weeks and put onto a growth medium
with auxins that will encourage shoot growth
The growing shoots will be transferred onto another growing medium with different
hormone concentrations that will promote root growth, after a few weeks.
The growing plants will then be transferred to a greenhouse to be acclimatised and
grown before they're planted
Farmers know what the crop plant No genetic variation occurs, creating a
produced will be like monoculture so they are all prone to any
new environmental change e.g. pest,
disease. For example the Irish potato
famine in 18451851.
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Costs are reduced as the crop is all
ready to harvest at the same time
Faster than selective breeding as huge
numbers of clones are produced from a
small number of valuable plants…read more