A2 ICT Info 3 Topic 2

Information and Systems

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  • Created on: 20-05-14 17:20
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Topic 2
Information & Systems
What's an Organisation?
An organisation is a group of people with a specific purpose.
What's the Division of Labour?
It's where activities and tasks are allocated to staff depending on their roles
and skills. It lets people specialise and develop their own knowledge and
expertise in a particular group of tasks.
Structure of an organisation
Shows who is responsible for who, who can make decisions and control their
staff, it can be presented within an organisation chart
Span of Control: The number of employees who are directly supervised by
one person. It can't be too wide, or this'll lead to inefficiency.
Chain of Command: The path through levels of management. Instructions go
down the level of authority and problems are referred to higher levels.

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Pyramid Structures
Traditional shape of a structure within a large business. It clearly defines the
Clearly defined authority & responsibility
Effective use of specialist managers
Employees loyal to their department
Long time to make & implement decisions
Poor communication across sections
Senior staff remote from the lower levels
Horizontal Structures
Fewer layers are used and has a wider span of control.…read more

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Specialisation: departments may have little to do with each other
Managers can be responsible for several departments and their role isn't
always clear
Control of top management could be weakened as they may have too
wide a span of control
Fewer levels of management usually mean that there are fewer chances
of promotion
Scale of Organisation
Very large organisations have diverse information needs. The CEO (Chief
Executive Officer) needs information that gives an overview of the whole
organisation.…read more

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Types of ICT System
Back Office System
This runs a company's business administration processes. In a retail company, a
back-office system would maintain a record of all sales transactions and
purchases, updating stock records as appropriate and producing hard copies of
invoices and receipts.
Transaction Processing System
Deals with the routine, day-to-day transactions of an organisation.…read more

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Uses operational-level data to provide management-level information. The
data can come from both internal and external sources and is combined and
often presented in an easy-to-read format such as tables or graphs.
An MIS aims to provide a manager with all the information needed to make
decisions associated with the job as effectively as possible.
A form of MIS called an Executive Information System (EIS) provides
aggregated information for senior managers.…read more


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