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Geography Revision Guide
Superpower Geographies
SUPERPOWER = their power is primarily economic and military e.g. the USA, EU and prior to the break up the
USSR. Example is the USA as they are a major military force and has the world's largest economy and cultural
values spread globally.
EMEGRING SUPERPOWER = their power is often based on increasing economic importance and sometimes
resources e.g. BRAZIL, RUSSIA, CHINA, INDIA and Oil rich Gulf States.
Example is BRAZIL as it acts as a regional power but its economic and military influence is still confined. CHINA =
lacks cultural and geographical dominance like us.
REGIONAL POWERS = their sphere of influence tends to be continental rather than global e.g. JAPAN and SOUTH
Example is JAPAN as they have economic muscle but lack military power.
HARD = military means the most threatening mechanisms. USA = military pressure on all continents bar
Antarctica. This power is strengthened by its membership to NATO = allies in Europe.
INTERMEDIATE = trade and aid figure here. Membership of trade blocs can extend its economic power with
respect to resources and both imports and exports. Aid given with "strings attached" favouring the donor.
SOFT = cultural and ideology represent the soft end. Media plays a v. important role in promoting images and
messages, which are little more than propaganda.

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Its influence varies across the world. Influence of European (Christian) colonisation can be seen in North and
South America, Southern Africa and Australia.
Islam = main religion in Northern Africa, the Middle East and parts of Asia.
Religion is the only form, there is also CAPITALISM = huge ever growing influence on the world. (Particularly since
the USSR collapsed in 1991).…read more

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Colonial rule: What is it?
Imperialism= a relationship of political, economic or cultural control
between geographical areas. E.g. introduction of Christianity in
Colonialism = the political rule of a nation by another. E.g. POLITICAL
control of Burma by Britain.
Colonization = the physical settling of people from a colonial power
within their country. E.g. English people moving to live and work in
The Great British Empire!
The Great British Empire was founded on exploration and sea power.…read more

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Superpower Societies
Imperialist System= the British Empire, culture, economy and politics of Britain dominating its colonies.
Democracy was present in Britain but not in its colonies!
Capitalist System= USA, division between people who own business and make profits, and those who work for
Communist System = USSR, Private ownership is not allowed ­ production should be owned in common to create
an equal society.
THEORIES ­ used to explain the existence of RICH, POWERFUL countries and the weaker poorer countries they
dominate.…read more

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CRITICISM ­ fails to take into account of support and aid provided by the USA. Many NICs had protectionist not
free trade policies. Economic policy of restricting trade between states.
MARXIST= emphasises how some maintain the wealth and the expense of others
Dependency Theory, Frank 1967
World is divided into NORTH & SOUTH (globally) (uses the Brandt Line to split the world)
Developed world (GLOBAL NORTH) keeps the rest of the world in a state of underdeveloped
(underdevelopment) so it can exploit resources.…read more

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NEO-COLINIALISM DEFINITION= form of indirect control over developing countries most of them former
INTERGOVERNMNETAL ORGANISATIONS (IGO's) ­ Bretton Woods Agreement , conference in 1944 allies set
about creating post war institutions to prevent future wars and ensure the world's economy ran more effectively
than the pre-war period (including the Great Depression 1930s)
World Bank 1944 (WB) = give advice loans and grants for reduction of poverty and promote economic
development.…read more

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Aid for corrupt dictators e.g. president Mobuto of Zaive in return for political support
Bilateral aid deals that benefitted supplier companies in developed countries
Continuation of importing cheap raw materials and exporting expensive manufacturing goods to the
developed world.
Brain-drain of skilled workers to developed world.
Exploration developing resources ­ Nigerian oil ­ paying little royalties and exporting profits.
Protecting much needed technologies with parents and costly licencing agreements.
Exploiting workers in low skilled factories by paying low wages.…read more

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These are both wealth creators = helps to explain rising wealth and power!
RUSSIA & GULF STATES = use oil and gas as their trade weapons. State owned companies e.g. Saudi
Aramco & Gazprom, control export volumes and profits.
Superpower Culture ­ same culture = share common values and beliefs for example:
Various `norms' ways to behave are commonly accepted laws.
Shared language, dress and art (music, dance and literature) and symbols.
Religious beliefs, attitudes and moral and ethical values.…read more

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Direct action protects against globalisation occurs regularly ­ 1999 WTO meeting in Seattle, 2001 G8 Summit in
Genoa and 2005 Summit at Gleneagles.
The 2005 UN convention on protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions allows countries to
use measures to protect their culture by, for instance limiting imports of foreign media,
GLOBALISTAION = promotes culture mixing, multiculturalism and better cultural understanding. Internet allows
people to keep in touch and share and maintain cultural values.…read more

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From 2000-05 amount of households annual incomes has changed in 2000 4 million earn $3,000 or less
by 2005 = 1 million. Overall increase households from 34 million to 42 million. Each category increased
from $5,900 to $14,700. BRAZIL = getting richer held the World Cup in 2014 and will hold the Rio
Olympics in 2016.
In China from 2000-05 then has been HUGE INCREASE in car sales from 0.6million
2000-3million in 2005. Biggest increase in 2002, 1.…read more


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