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Liver functions

1. monitoring amino acid levels, blood glucose levels, lipid levels
2. detoxification of toxins via oxidation, reduction, methylation, combination with coenzymes with a
high turnover number
3. detoxification of alcohol, drugs
4. destructing of RBCs
5. breakdown of hormones
6. synthesis of bile, RBCs in the fetus, cholesterol…

Page 2

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· Nitrogenous compounds, the body cannot store proteins or amino acids, although amino acids
contain as much energy as carbohydrates, which mean to excrete them would be wasteful, instead
these are transported to the liver where deamination occurs and the resulting ketoacid is used as
an energy source for respiration,…

Page 3

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· This hairpin countercurrent multiplier system ensures a buildup of salts in the surrounding tissue
fluid and makes the salt exchange between the limbs more efficient by being close to each other but
running fluid in opposite directions.
· as the descending limb moves down the medulla, medulla has a…

Page 4

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magnification qs to find true length in nm

· take paper length in mm
· multiply by a million
· divide by magnification given, if muim, divide by 1000


· glucose decreases blood WP so enzymes cannot function,
· poor blood circulation may cause gangrene
· glucose crystallises in…

Page 5

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Link matrix

1. Pyruvate dehydrogenase dehydrogenates pyruvate and NAD+ is reduced to NADH, enters OP
2. Pyruvate decarboxylase removes COOH group from pyruvate and makes CO2 and coenzyme A
3. CoA combines with acetate to make acetyl CoA and carries it to krebs cycle in the mitochondrial



Page 6

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The nodes of Ranvier are the places where the myelin sheath skips and the neuronal membrane is exposed.
This is so that the impulse can jump from node to node, greatly increasing the speed of conduction than if
the entire neuronal membrane had to be depolarized. The synapse is a…

Page 7

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If the pressure is too high: the cardioinhibitory centre is stimulated, impulses are sent down the vagus nerve,
the heart rate is slowed and the pressure will fall.
If the pressure is too low: the cardioacceleratory centre is stimulated, impulses are sent down the
accelerator nerve, the heart rate is…

Page 8

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liver cells have enzymes and can tolerate low ph of lactate, and have sufficient o2

pancreas exocrine=digestive hormone released into pancreatic duct into small intestine

NaHCo3 allows to neutralise stomach acid

endocrine: beta cells release insulin and alpha cell glucagon into near blood supply

normal BG= 90mg per 100cm3 of…

Page 9

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· Spatial: when generator potentials in neurones converge to summate to a high concentration of
neurotransmitter to allow diffusion to postsynaptic neurone


Where the synapse is fatigued and vesicles of neurotransmitters for action potential run out. Good to
prevent overstimulation and allow you to become accustom to sounds etc.…

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exposure produces longlasting changes in nervous system function, at least in part, by disabling rather than
activating nicotinic cholinergic signaling.

nerve gas and sarin & organophosphorus

Once the signal passes to the next nerve, an enzyme called choline esterase destroys the
acetlycholine. Organophosphorus compounds block this enzyme, thus preventing the…


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