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PSYCHOLOGY A2 ­ UNIT 4 ­ RESEARCH METHODS





INTRODUCTION
To be successful in Section C of your Unit 4 exam you will need to show that you are
able to carry out psychological research for yourself.

CHECKLIST OF EVERYTHING FOR RESEARCH METHODS


RESEARCH METHODS
Major features of science ­ objectivity,…

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PSYCHOLOGY A2 ­ UNIT 4 ­ RESEARCH METHODS





THE SPECIFICATION






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PSYCHOLOGY A2 ­ UNIT 4 ­ RESEARCH METHODS





MAJOR FEATURES OF SCIENCE

TERM DEFINITION
Objectivity An approach to events that is characterised by freedom from interpretative bias or prejudice. It
is a nonsubjective approach based on the assumption that there is an external reality
uncontaminated by internal interpretation
Replicability Refers…

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PSYCHOLOGY A2 ­ UNIT 4 ­ RESEARCH METHODS




Peer review is the assessment if scientific work by others who are experts in the same field. (i.e.
peers) The intention of peer reviewing is to ensure that any research conducted and published is
of high quality.

The Parliamentary Office of Science…

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PSYCHOLOGY A2 ­ UNIT 4 ­ RESEARCH METHODS




Type Nature & Use Strengths Weaknesses
Lab IV is manipulated by an Can draw causal conclusion Contrived, tends to lack
experimenter to observe its Extraneous variables are mundane realism
effect on the DV. These are minimised Investigator bias
highly controlled Can be…

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PSYCHOLOGY A2 ­ UNIT 4 ­ RESEARCH METHODS





RESERACH TECHNIQUES
Method Strengths Weaknesses
Observational Naturalistic observation ­ Can study behaviour Poor control of extraneous
everything is left as where it isn't possible to variables
normal, all variables free manipulate variables Observer bias
to vary High ecological validity Low interobserver reliability…

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PSYCHOLOGY A2 ­ UNIT 4 ­ RESEARCH METHODS




event. Involve s many Used to investigate Researcher may lack objectivity
different techniques unusual instances of
behaviour
Complex interactions
studied






RELIABILITY VALIDITY
INTERNAL & Internal reliability ­ is a measure of the Internal validity ­ concerns what goes on
EXTERNAL extent to…

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PSYCHOLOGY A2 ­ UNIT 4 ­ RESEARCH METHODS




Reliability can be improved through Observational studies are likely to have hig
training observers in the use of, e.g. ecological validity because they involve mo
coding systems natural behaviours

SELFREPORT Internal reliability can be assessed using Face validity ­ does the test…

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PSYCHOLOGY A2 ­ UNIT 4 ­ RESEARCH METHODS




Difficult to do when you have
a large target population
Stratified Involves classifying the population in More representative Opportunity sampling may
sampling to categories and then choosing a than other methods lead to bias
sample which consists of participants because there is…

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PSYCHOLOGY A2 ­ UNIT 4 ­ RESEARCH METHODS




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REASONS FOR CONDUCTING RESEARCH USING NONHUMAN ANIMALS
Animals may be studied because they are interesting in their own right and such research may
benefit animals
Animals offer the opportunity for greater control and objectivity in research procedures
Animals may be…

Comments

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Corn on the Cob

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maru0

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kpd_98

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