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Preview of A2 AQA PE - ALL 2010-2013 14 MARKERS ANSWERED

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14 markers
SECA) Explain how the majority of energy used during a race would be provided
and outline the process of glycogen loading that may be used by performers to
improve performance.
The majority of energy would be provided by aerobic energy system. The first
stage is glycolysis, glucose would be broken down to pyruvate and 2 ATP would be
made. Fats could also be broken down to pyruvate in the process of beta-oxidation.
The pyruvate would enter the kreb's cycle where oxidation of acetyl-coA would
occur. It is then the electron transport chain where water is formed. 34 ATP would
be produced from this.
The process of glycogen loading aims to increase glycogen stores, and delay fatigue.
There is 2 methods to do glycogen loading, method 1: reduce bodies glycogen
levels by increasing endurance training with a 3 day low carbohydrate diet and
tapering training levels. Then a few days before the competition have a diet high in
carbohydrates. Trained athletes could rest for several days before eating high carb
diet. Also, increase water consumption helps with the process. Method 2, a day
before the competition, do a 3 minute high intensity exercise. This opens the
carbohydrate window and immediately then intake a high carbohydrate diet.
SECA) Discuss the potential benefits and harmful effects to an athlete in taking
caffeine, creatine and bicarbonate supplements.
Caffeine is used by endurance athletes. The benefits of caffeine, is that it is a
stimulant therefore increases mental alertness. It reduces the effects of fatigue
and allows a performer to continue at higher intensity for a longer duration.
Caffeine makes reactions quicker the aspects involved in the sport. Overall it leads
to a higher level of performance. However, the drawbacks of caffeine are that the
performer loses fine control. It also against the rules of sport if used in high
Creatine is used by sprinters. The benefits of creatine, is that it increases
phosphocreatine stores and increases the amount of energy supplied from this
system. It allows the performer to perform maximally longer. It therefore leads to
an increase in performance. However, the drawbacks of create are that it retains
water, and it can lead to vomiting.
Sodium bicarbonate is used by endurance athletes. The benefits of sodium
bicarbonate are that it increase the buffering of lactate. It delays onset of blood
lactate accumulation (OBLA) and therefore allows the performer to maintain
intensity for a longer duration. The drawbacks of it are that it may cause vomiting.
SECA) Discuss the suggestion that altitude training always improves
performance in endurance events and explain the factors that contribute to a
performers VO2 max.
Altitude training is 2000m above sea level. It usually lasts for one month and
involves three phases: acclimatization, primary training and recovery. The partial
pressure of oxygen is lower at altitude so the body produces erythropoietin.
Alternative methods are now available instead of travelling such as oxygen tents.
Altitude training improves performance because it increases the number of red
blood cells therefore increases the number of haemoglobin so the oxygen carrying

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There is also an increase in lactic acid tolerance. Benefits of
altitude training lasts 6 ­ 8 weeks. However it can hinder performance as it can
causes altitude sickness. Training at the same intensity is difficult so the performer
risks losing fitness. The benefits could be lost within a few days returning to seal
level. It also brings psychological problems due to travelling.
VO2 max is the maximum volume of oxygen that can be utilized per minute. Relative
VO2 max takes into account body weight.…read more

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This slows reaction time, causes muscle
fatigues and muscles cramps, an irregular heart beat, and lactic acid build up.
SECB) Explain the concept of social facilitation and how it can affect
performance. Outline the possible strategies which the performer and coach
may use to limit negative effects that may occur.
Social facilitation is the influence of the presence of others on performance. Social
inhibition is the negative effect of an audience on performance.…read more

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The zone of optimal functioning is how some performers have a
wider range of optimal arousal levels.
Somatic stress management techniques include biofeedback, this is measuring
physiological responses. This can be done using a heart rate monitor. It allows the
performer to recognise and control anxiety responses. Another technique is
breathing control which involves diaphragmatic breathing. The performer breathes
in through their nose and out through their mouth. It may involve repeating key
words.…read more

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Strategies to develop assertive behaviour, can be; punishing aggressive acts,
developing player's code of conduct, removing the player from the situation,
encourage peer support, give a role of responsibility to the player, highlight
non-aggressive role models, reduce importance of the event, use stress
management techniques, use positive reinforcement for assertive play, and develop
fitness levels.
SECC) `Their feats will not only change the way sport is perceived back home,
they will change society'
Discuss the statement with reference to successful performers, governing body
and society.…read more

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New training
techniques have also been devised to improve performance.
The impact of technology on the spectator, now means they can have improve home
viewing experience through the use of more cameras. There is now a wider range of
sports they can watch through advances in media. Development of technology such
as Hawkeye can increase the interactive feel of the spectators.
SECC) Outline the possible causes of spectator violence such as hooliganism at
sporting events and explain how the law aims to protect spectators.…read more

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Social factors and support programmes in the UK that encourage the development
of elite athletes and increase the chance of winning medals include: level of media
coverage, equal opportunity policies, school experience, club network, peer
support, socio-economic status, funding to performers such as scholarships,
funding to clubs such as lottery, Sport England coordinate development of grass
roots, UK Sport coordinate development of elite performers, there is coordinated
approach of sports organisations such as Sport England and UK Sport, high quality
facilities and coaching, Talent Identification…read more



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