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Chapter 17. Probing deep into matter:
Rutherford Scattering
Previously physicists thought that the atom was a positively charged object, with negative
electrons scattered around it.
Rutherford fired a stream of alpha particles at a thin foil of gold nuclei. They then observed
the angle at which the alpha particles were…

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Fermions are any particles which aren't bosons, and are themselves split into 2 groups,
Leptons and Quarks.

Quarks, are the particles which form the protons and neutrons as well as many other, but
much rarer particles. There are 6 flavours of quark, 3 positively chared. The Up, Charm…

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Quark Confinement
In theory if you provide enough energy to a Baryon, you could separate it to get an
individual quark. The problem with this is though that because quarks are held together by
the nuclear strong force, a very large amount of energy is required for this, and before…


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