A2 English Language Change quick study guide

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A2 English Language Change
quick study guide
Key words
Acronym A word formed from the initial letters of a
name e.g. SCUBA
Affixation Adding an affix like `ed' or `s'
Amelioration Word meaning changes from something bad
to something good
Archaic Old/oldfashioned
Blend Two words are combined (oxbridge = oxford
and cambridge) (because = by and cause)
Borrowings Words from different cultures
Broadening Meaning of a word becomes broader
Clipping A word formed by dropping one or more
syllables "photograph" becomes "photo"
"cellular" becomes "cell"
Coinage Process of creating a new word
Compound A word that is a combination of two words
("bedroom", "armchair", "passport",
"nosebleed")
Connotation Implied meanings a word/phrase may have.
Conversion conversion: same word different form aka
making a noun a verb [host] = (to host)
[email] = (to email)
Derivation Creating a new word based on the same root
word by adding a prefix or suffix, aka
(happiness) and (unhappy), root word= happy
Elision Omitting one or more sounds from a word (in

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Initialism Same as acronym but you pronounce the
letters like `CD' or `RSPCA'
Syntax inversion Changes order of words in a sentence
Obsolete A word that is no longer used/erased from the
dictionary because it is archaic
Mixedmode Features of two modes combines aka speech
in a written advert
Narrowing The meaning of a word becomes more
specific
Pejoration When a meaning of a word changes from
something good to something bad
Political Correctness Offensive language should be eliminated/not
used
Semantic shift The meaning of…read more

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Theorist: Ferdinand de Saussure: French linguistic and semiologist. Said language changed
because he saw language as having 2 things: the signifier and the signified. Signifier:cat,
signified: independent, furry, cunning, playful whereas in the 18th century while the signifier
stays the same, the signified is: wicked, nasty, evil, sinful
Why does language change?
People invent things and they need naming
changes in society media and politics
trading with other countries
Travel equals migration, colonisation and wars/invasion
Globalisation global brands and words.…read more

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WAG' wives and girlfriends (of footballers). David Crystal says this is because we
like `linguistic economy' and saving time.
changes through: metaphors, euphemisms and idioms.…read more

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More consistent and availability and number of
standardised spelling dictionaries increased. drive
for more literate society.
schooling offered to all
children.
20/21 standardised spelling rules educational practices and
government
recently: non standard forms
being used. emergence of information
and computer technology
and texting, IM'ing
why did spelling change?
phonological, technological and standardisation purposes.
phonological sounds of language changed/pronunciation so we changed spelling.
capitalisation wasn't standardised because some people chose to use capitals on whatever they
deemed fit and abstract nouns instead of ONLY concrete nouns.…read more

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RP
Giles' accommodation theory divergence (posh speech) convergence (normal speech)
THINGS TO LOOK OUT FOR IN EXAMS + WRITE
ABOUT
I basically went through all the mark schemes and this is the stuff they want you to talk about
concerning AO1, AO2 and AO3.…read more

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Graphology
typefaces
fonts
mix of upper and lower case
italics, bold
images
Discourse structure
lists numbers, bullet points
paragraphs
discourse markers
reported speech
chronological
cohesion
Orthography
long s
capital letters
punctuation
elision
spelling (americanisations)
ampersands `&'
AO2 theories and concepts /16
Construction of identities for narrator / narratee organisational identity
Identities gender/class
Technological constraints
Politeness
Power/prestige
Gender representation
Lexical/semantic change process
Development of genre
Synthetic personalisation…read more

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Giles' accommodation theory, convergence and divergence
Prescriptivists/descriptivists
AO3 Context /8
Context of production
Context of reception
GASP (genre, audience, subject, purpose)
Globalisation
Social change
Technological developments
Gender of author
Mode/multimodality
Social class…read more

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