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3.3 Transport in Plants

Plants need a transport system to:
Move water and minerals from the roots up to the leaves
Move sugars from the leaves to the rest of the plant

The Vascular Tissues
Water and soluble mineral ions travel upwards in the xylem tissue

Assimilates such as sugars…

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Long cell with thick lignified walls
The lignin waterproofs the walls of the
xylem and causes the cell to die
The end walls of the xylem cells then
decay and the contents leaves the cells
It is them a tube with no end walls called a
xylem vessel

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Apoplast Symplast Vacuolar
Water passes through the Water enters the cell cytoplasm This is similar to the
spaces in between the cell through the plasma membrane symplast pathway in that
walls and in between the and through the plasmodesmata the water passes through
cells without passing from one cell to…

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Water availability ­ if water is less available the plant will preserve the water by closing the


Measuring Transpiration rate:
The main route of water loss from
a plant is through the stomata of
the leaf.
It is not easy to measure the rate
at which water vapour is…

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This is the pressure when the endodermis actively moves water and minerals into the medulla
with no way to go back. This pressure forces the water and minerals up into the xylem. It can push
water up a few metres but cannot account solely for water getting to the top…

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expand when water exposed to the air to allow
Leaf is rolled longitudinally so that air is available. gaseous exchange.
is trapped inside. This air becomes
humid which reduces water loss from The leaves are The leaf stem has many large
the leaf. The leaf can roll more tightly reduced…

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2. The concentration of H+ ions outside the cell increases and a gradient is formed.
3. The hydrogen ions diffuse back into the cell with sucrose through facilitated diffusion. This
is known as cotransport.
4. The cotransport required ATP to move the H + ions out of the cell and…


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